Biology

The Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus was used to design this course. The course content is also relevant for other exams, such as the National Examination Council (NECO) exams, the West African Examination Council (WEAC) exams, and the General Certificate of Education (GCE) exams.

 

 

Free Lesson 

Sample Biology CBT

Free Lesson 

Sample Biology CBT

Biology

The Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus was used to design this course. The course content is also relevant for other exams, such as the National Examination Council (NECO) exams, the West African Examination Council (WEAC) exams, and the General Certificate of Education (GCE) exams.

Kelvin Ogbenetega Ibru-Adogbeji

Kelvin Ogbenetega Ibru-Adogbeji

Course Instructor

By studying Biology, students learn to make more informed decisions about their own health and about significant biological issues such as genetically modified crops, the use of antibiotics, and the eradication of invasive species, in this course, I will bring you up to speed with these realities, which will, in turn, help you pass your exams. Remember to ask questions in the course forum and attend all live sessions.

John Sunday Emmanuel

John Sunday Emmanuel

Assistant Course Instructor

Learning Outcomes

 At the end of this course, candidates should be able to:

(i) Demonstrate sufficient knowledge of the concepts of the diversity interdependence and unity of
life;
(ii) Account for the continuity of life through reorganization, inheritance, and evolution;
(iii) Apply biological principles and concepts to everyday life, especially to matters affecting living
things, individual, society, the environment, community health, and the economy.

Learning Outcomes

 At the end of this course, candidates should be able to:

(i) Demonstrate sufficient knowledge of the concepts of the diversity interdependence and unity of
life;
(ii) Account for the continuity of life through reorganization, inheritance, and evolution;
(iii) Apply biological principles and concepts to everyday life, especially to matters affecting living
things, individual, society, the environment, community health, and the economy.

Course Syllabus

VARIETY OF ORGANISMS

1. Living organisms:
a. Characteristics
b. Cell structure and functions of cell Components
c. Level of organization
i. Cell e.g. euglena and paramecium,
ii. Tissue, e.g. epithelial tissues and hydra

iii. Organ, e.g. onion bulb
iv. Systems, e.g. reproductive, digestive and
excretory

v. Organisms e.g. Chlamydomonas
2. Evolution among the following:
a. Monera (prokaryotes), e.g. bacteria and blue green algae.
b. Protista (protozoans and protophyta),
e.g. Amoeba, Euglena and Paramecium
c. Fungi, e.g. mushroom and Rhizopus.
d. Plantae (plants)
i. Thallophyta (e.g. Spirogyra)
ii. Bryophyta (mosses and liveworts) e.g.
Brachmenium and Merchantia.
iii. Pteridophyta (ferns) e.g. Dryopteris.

iv. Spermatophyta (Gymnospermae and
Angiospermae)
– Gymnosperms e.g. Cycads and conifers.
– Angiosperms (monocots, e.g. maize; dicots,
e.g. water leaf)
e. Animalia (animals)
i. Invertebrates
– coelenterate (e.g. Hydra)
– Platyhelminthes (flatworms) e.g. Taenia
– Nematoda (roundworms)
– Annelida (e.g. earthworm)
– Arthropoda e.g. mosquito, cockroach,
housefly, bee, butterfly
– Mollusca (e.g. snails)
ii. Multicellular animals (vertebrates)
– pisces (cartilaginous and bony fish)
– Amphibia (e.g. toads and frogs)
– Reptilia (e.g. lizards, snakes and turtles)
– Aves (birds)
– Mammalia (mammals)
3.a Structural/functional and behavioural
adaptations of organisms.

b. adaptive colouration and its functions
c. Behavioural adaptations in social animals
d. Structural adaptations in organisms.

FORM AND FUNCTIONS

1. Internal structure of a flowering plant

i. Root
ii. Stem
iii. Leaf
b. Internal structure of a mammal
2. Nutrition
a. Modes of nutrition
i. Autotrophic
ii. Heterotrophic

b. Types of Nutrition
c. Plant nutrition
i. Photosynthesis
ii. Mineral requirements
(macro and micro-nutrients)

d. Animal nutrition
i. Classes of food substances; carbohydrates, proteins,
fats and oils, vitamins, mineral salts and water

ii. Food tests (e.g. starch, reducing sugar, protein, oil, fat
etc.
iii. The mammalian tooth (structures, types and functions)

iv. Mammalian alimentary canal
v. Nutrition process (ingestion, digestion, absorption,
and assimilation of digested food.
3. Transport
a. Need for transportation
b. Materials for transportation.
Excretory products, gases, manufactured food,
digested food, nutrient, water and hormones)
c. Channels for transportation
i. Mammalian circulatory system (heart, arteries,
veins, and capillaries)
ii Plant vascular system (phloem and xylem)

4. Respiration
a. Respiratory organs and surfaces
b. The mechanism of gaseous exchange in:

i. Plants
ii. Mammals
c. Aerobic respiration
d. Anaerobic respiration
5. Excretion
a. Types of excretory structures:
contractile vacuole, flamecell,
nephridium, Malpighian tubule, kidney,
stoma and lenticel.
b. Excretory mechanisms:
i. Kidneys
ii. lungs
ii. skin
c. Excretory products of plants

6. Support and movement
a. Tropic, tactic, nastic and sleep
movements in plants
b. supporting tissues in animals
c. Types and functions of the skeleton
i. Exoskeleton
ii. Endoskeleton
iii. Functions of the skeleton in animals

7. Reproduction
a. A sexual reproduction
i. Fission as in Paramecium
ii. Budding as in yeast
iii. Natural vegetative propagation
iv. Artificial vegetative propagation.
b. sexual reproduction in flowering plants
i. Floral parts and their functions
ii. Pollination and fertilization
iii. products of sexual reproduction
c. Reproduction in mammals
i. structures and functions of the male and female
reproductive organs
ii. Fertilization and development.
(Fusion of gamates)

8. Growth
a. meaning of growth
b. Germination of seeds and condition
necessary for germination of seeds.
9. Co-ordination and control
a. Nervous coordination:
i. the components, structure and functions
of the central nervous system;
ii. The components and functions of the
peripheral nervous systems;
iii. Mechanism of transmission of impulses;
iv. Reflex action
b. The sense organs
i. skin (tactile)
ii. nose (olfactory)
iii. tongue (taste)
iv. eye (sight)
v. ear (auditory)
c. Hormonal control
i. animal hormonal system
– Pituitary
– thyroid
– parathyroid
– adrenal gland

ii. Plant hormones (phytohormones)

d. Homeostasis
i. Body temperature regulation
ii. Salt and water regulation

 

ECOLOGY

1. Factors affecting the distribution of
Organisms
i. Abiotic
ii. Biotic
2. Symbiotic interactions of plants
and animals
(a) Energy flow in the ecosystem: food chains,
food webs and trophic levels
(b) Nutrient cycling in nature

i. carbon cycle
ii. water cycle
iii. Nitrogen cycle
3. Natural Habitats
(a) Aquatic (e.g. ponds, streams, lakes
seashores and mangrove swamps)
(b) Terrestrial/arboreal (e.g. tree-tops of oil palm,
abandoned farmland or a dry grassy (savanna) field,
and burrow or hole.

4. Local (Nigerian) Biomes)
a. Tropical rainforest
b. Guinea savanna (southern and northern)
c. Sudan Savanna
d. Desert
e. Highlands of montane forests and grasslands of the
Obudu, Jos, Mambilla Plateau.
5. The Ecology of Populations:
(a) Population density and overcrowding.
(b) Adaptation for survival
i. Factors that bring about competition
ii. Intra and inter-specific competition
iii. Relationship between competition and
succession.
(c) Factors affecting population sizes:
i. Biotic (e.g. food, pest, disease, predation, competition,
reproductive ability).
ii. Abiotic (e.g. temperature, space, light, rainfall,
topography, pressure, pH, etc.
(d) Ecological succession
i. primary succession
ii. secondary succession
6. SOIL
a) (i) characteristics of different types
of soil (sandy, loamy, clayey)
i. soil structure
ii. porosity, capillarity and humus
content
iii. Components of the soil
i. inorganic
ii. organic
iii. soil organisms
iv. Soil air
v. Soil water
Soil fertility:
i. loss of soil fertility
ii. Renewal and maintenance of soil
fertility

7. Humans and Environment
(a) Diseases:
(i) Common and endemic diseases.
ii. Easily transmissible diseases and disease
syndrome such as:
– poliomyelitis
– cholera
– tuberculosis
– sexually transmitted disease/syndrome
(gonorrhea, syphilis, AIDS, etc.
b. Pollution and its control
(i) sources, types, effects and methods of control.
(ii) Sanitation and sewage

(c) Conservation of Natural Resources
(d) Game reserves and National parks

HEREDITY AND VARIATIONS

(I) Variation In Population
a. Morphological variations in the physical appearance
of individuals.
(i) size (height, weight)
(ii) Colour (skin, eye, hair, coat of animals, scales
and feathers.
(iii) Fingerprints
b. Physiological variation
(i) Ability to roll tongue
(ii) Ability to taste
phenylthiocarbamide (PTC)
(iii) Blood groups
c. Application of discontinuous
variation in crime detection,
blood transfusion and
determination of paternity.
2. Heredity
a) Inheritance of characters in organisms;
i) Heritable and non-heritable characters.
b) Chromosomes – the basis of heredity;
(i) Structure
(ii) Process of transmission of hereditary
characters from parents to offspring.
c) Probability in genetics and sex determination.
a) Application of the principles of heredity in:
i) Agriculture
(ii) Medicine

b. Sex – linked characters e.g. baldness,
haemophilia, colour blindness, etc.

EVOLUTION

1. Theories of evolution
a) Lamarck’s theory
b) Darwin’s theory
c) organic theory
2. Evidence of evolution

Course Packages:

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