Chemistry

The Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus was used to design this course. The course content is also relevant for other exams, such as the National Examination Council (NECO) exams, the West African Examination Council (WEAC) exams, and the General Certificate of Education (GCE) exams.

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Chemistry

The Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus was used to design this course. The course content is also relevant for other exams, such as the National Examination Council (NECO) exams, the West African Examination Council (WEAC) exams, and the General Certificate of Education (GCE) exams.

Okoronkwo Nnaemeka David

Okoronkwo Nnaemeka David

Course Instructor

I encourage you to see this course beyond passing exams because Chemistry is fundamental to our world, Chemistry plays a role in everyone’s lives and it touches almost every aspect of our existence in some way. Chemistry is essential for meeting our basic needs of food, clothing, shelter, health, energy, and water. I and the assistant course instructor will be in the course forum to answer your questions, remember to attend all our live sessions. Cheers

kelvin Oghenetega Ibru-Adegbeji

kelvin Oghenetega Ibru-Adegbeji

Assistant Course Instructor

Learning Outcomes

 At the end of this course, candidates should be able to:
(i) Understand the basic principles and concepts in chemistry;
(ii) Interpret scientific data relating to chemistry;
(iii) Deduce the relationships between chemistry and other sciences;
(iv) Apply the knowledge of chemistry to industry and everyday life.

Course Syllabus

Separation of mixtures and purification of chemical substances

(a) Pure and impure substances
(b) Boiling and melting points.
(c) Elements, compounds and mixtures
(d) Chemical and physical changes.
(e) Separation processes:
evaporation, simple and fractional distillation,
sublimation, filtration, crystallization, paper
and column chromatography, simple and
fractional crystallization, magnetization,
decantation

Chemical combination

Stoichiometry, laws of definite and multiple
proportions, law of conservation of matter,
Gay Lussac’s law of combining volumes,
Avogadro’s law; chemical symbols, formulae,
equations and their uses, relative atomic mass
based on 12C=12, the mole concept and
Avogadro’s number.

Kinetic theory of matter and Gas Laws

(a) An outline of the kinetic theory of matter;
(i) melting,
(ii) vaporization

(iii) boiling
(iv) freezing
(v) condensation
in terms of molecular motion and Brownian
movement.
(b)(i) The laws of Boyle, Charles, Graham and
Dalton (law of partial pressure); combined gas
law, molar volume and atomicity of gases.
(ii) The ideal gas equation (PV = nRT).
(iii) The relationship between vapour density of
gases and the relative molecular mass.

Atomic structure and bonding

(a) (i)The concept of atoms, molecules and ions,
the works of Dalton, Millikan, Rutherford,
Moseley, Thompson and Bohr.
(ii) Atomic structure, electron configuration,
atomic number, mass number and isotopes;
specific examples should be drawn from
elements of atomic number 1 to 20.
(iii) Shapes of s and p orbitals.
(b) The periodic table and periodicity of
elements, presentation of the periodic table
with a view to recognizing families of
elements e.g. alkali metals, halogens, the
noble gases and transition metals. The
variation of the following properties:
ionization energy, ionic radii, electron
affinity and electronegativity

(c) Chemical bonding.
Electrovalency and covalency, the electron
configuration of elements and their tendency
to attain the noble gas structure. Hydrogen
bonding and metallic bonding as special
types of electrovalency and covalency
respectively; coordinate bond as a type
of covalent bond as illustrated by complexes
like [Fe(CN)6]
3-
, [Fe(CN)6]
4-
, [Cu(NH3)4]
2+
and [Ag(NH3)2]
+
; van der Waals’ forces
should be mentioned as a special type of
bonding forces.
(d) Shapes of simple molecules: linear ((H2, O2,
C12,HCl and CO2), non-linear (H2O) and
tetrahedral; (CH4) and pyramidal (NH3).

(e) Nuclear Chemistry:
(i) Radioactivity – Types and properties of
radiations
(ii) Nuclear reactions. Simple equations,
uses and applications of natural and
artificial radioactivity.

Air

(a) The natural gaseous constituents and
their proportion in the air.
– nitrogen, oxygen, water vapour, carbon
(IV) oxide and the noble gases (argon
and neon).
(b) Air as a mixture and some uses of the
noble gas.

Water

(a) Water as a product of the combustion
of hydrogen and its composition by
volume.
(b) Water as a solvent, atmospheric gases
dissolved in water and their biological
significance.
(c) Hard and soft water:
Temporary and permanent
hardness and methods of softening
hard water.
(d) Treatment of water for town supply.
(e) Water of crystallization, efflorescence,
deliquescence and hygroscopy.
Examples of the substances exhibiting
these properties and their uses

Solubility

(a) Unsaturated, saturated and
supersaturated solutions. Solubility
curves and simple deductions from
them, (solubility defined in terms of
mole per dm3) and simple
calculations

(b) Solvents for fats, oil and paints
and the use of such solvents
for the removal of stains.
(c) False solution (Suspensions and colloids):
Properties and examples.
Harmattan haze and water paints as examples
of suspensions and fog, milk, aerosol spray,
emulsion paints and rubber solution as
examples of colloids.

 

Environmental Pollution

(a) Sources and effects of pollutants.
(b) Air pollution:
Examples of air pollutants such as
H2S, CO, SO2, oxides of nitrogen,
chlorofluorocarbons and dust.
(c) Water pollution
Sewage and oil pollution should be
known.
(d) Soil pollution:
Oil spillage, Biodegradable and
non-biodegradable pollutants

Acids, bases and salts

(a) General characteristics and properties of
acids, bases and salts. Acids/base indicators,
basicity of acids; normal, acidic, basic and
double salts. An acid defined as a substance
whose aqueous solution furnishes H3O+
ions
or as a proton donor. Ethanoic, citric and
tartaric acids as examples of naturally
occurring organic acids, alums as examples
of double salts, preparation of salts by
neutralization, precipitation and action of
acids on metals. Oxides and
trioxocarbonate (IV) salts
(b) Qualitative comparison of the
conductances of molar solutions of
strong and weak acids and bases,
relationship between conductance and
amount of ions present.

(c) pH and pOH scale; Simple calculations

(d) Acid/base titrations.
(e) Hydrolysis of salts: Principle
Simple examples such as
NH4Cl, AlCl3, Na2CO3 and CH3COONa

Oxidation and reduction

(a) Oxidation in terms of the addition of
oxygen or removal of hydrogen.
(b) Reduction as removal of oxygen or
addition of hydrogen.
(c) Oxidation and reduction in terms of
electron transfer.
(d) Use of oxidation numbers.
Oxidation and reduction treated as change
in oxidation number and use of oxidation
numbers in balancing simple equations.
(e) IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic
compounds using oxidation number.
(f) Tests for oxidizing and reducing agents.

Electrolysis

(a) Electrolytes and non-electrolytes.
Faraday’s laws of electrolysis.
(b) (i) Electrolysis of dilute H2SO4, aqueous
CuSO4, CuC12 solution, dilute and
concentrated NaC1 solutions and
fused NaC1
(ii) Factors affecting discharge of ions at
the electrodes.

(c) Uses of electrolysis:
Purification of metals e.g. copper and
production of elements and compounds
(Al, Na, O2, Cl2 and NaOH).
(d) Electrochemical cells:
Redox series (K, Ca, Na, Mg,
Al, Zn, Fe, Sn, Pb, H, Cu, Hg, Ag, Au,)
half-cell reactions and electrode potentials.
(Simple calculations only).
(e) Corrosion as an electrolytic process,
cathodic protection of metals,
painting, electroplating and coating
with grease or oil as ways of
preventing iron from corrosion

 

Energy changes

(a) Energy changes(∆H) accompanying physical
and chemical changes:
dissolution of substances in/or
reaction with water e.g. Na, NaOH,
K, NH4Cl. Endothermic (+∆H) and
exothermic (-∆H) reactions.
(b) Entropy as an order-disorder
phenomenon: simple illustrations
like mixing of gases and dissolution
of salts.
(c) Spontaneity of reactions:
∆G0 = 0 as a criterion for equilibrium, ∆G
greater or less than zero as a criterion for
non-spontaneity or spontaneity respectively

Rates of Chemical Reaction

(a) Elementary treatment of the following factors
which can change the rate of a chemical
reaction:
(i) Temperature e.g. the reaction between HCl
and Na2S2O3 or Mg and HCl

(ii) Concentration e.g. the reaction between HCl
and Na2S2O3, HCl and marble and the iodine
clock reaction, for gaseous systems, pressure
may be used as concentration term.
(iii) Surface area e.g. the reaction
between marble and HCl with
marble in
(i) powdered form
(ii) lumps of the same mass.
(iv) Catalyst e.g. the decomposition
of H2O2 or KClO3 in the
presence or absence of MnO2
(b) Reaction rate curves.
(c) Activation energy
Qualitative treatment of Arrhenius’ law and
the collision theory, effect of light on some
reactions. e.g. halogenation of alkanes

Chemical equilibra

Reversible reactions and factors governing
the equilibrium position. Dynamic
equilibrium. Le Chatelier’s principle and
equilibrium constant. Simple examples to
include action of steam on iron and
N2O4 2NO2.

Non-metals and their compounds

(a) Hydrogen: commercial production from
water gas and cracking of petroleum
fractions, laboratory preparation,
properties, uses and test for hydrogen.
(b) Halogens: Chlorine as a representative
element of the halogen. Laboratory
preparation, industrial preparation by
electrolysis, properties and uses, e.g.
water sterilization, bleaching,
manufacture of HCl, plastics and
insecticides

Hydrogen chloride and Hydrochloric acid:
Preparation and properties. Chlorides and test for
chlorides.
(c) Oxygen and Sulphur
(i) Oxygen:
Laboratory preparation, properties and uses.
Commercial production from liquid air.
Oxides: Acidic,basic, amphoteric and neutral,
trioxygen (ozone) as an allotrope and the
importance of ozone in the atmosphere.
(ii) Sulphur:
Uses and allotropes:
preparation of allotropes is not expected .
Preparation, properties and uses of sulphur(IV)
oxide, the reaction of SO2 with alkalis.
Trioxosulphate (IV) acid and its salts, the effect
of acids on salts of trioxosulphate(IV),
Tetraoxosulphate(VI) acid: Commercial
preparation (contact process only), properties as
a dilute acid, an oxidizing and a dehydrating
agent and uses. Test for SO4
2-
.
Hydrogen sulphide: Preparation and properties
as a weak acid, reducing agent and precipitating
agent. Test for S2-

(d) Nitrogen:
(i) Laboratory preparation
(ii) Production from liquid air
(iii) Ammonia:
Laboratory and industrial
preparations (Haber Process only),
properties and uses, ammonium salts
and their uses, oxidation of
ammonia to nitrogen (IV)
oxide and trioxonitrate (V)
acid.
Test for NH4
+
(iv) Trioxonitrate (V) acid:
Laboratory preparation
from ammonia;
properties and uses. Trioxonitrate (V) salt-
action of heat and uses. Test for NO3

(v) Oxides of nitrogen:
Properties.The nitrogen cycle.
(e) Carbon:
(i) Allotropes: Uses and
properties
(ii) Carbon(IV) oxide-
Laboratory preparation, properties
and uses. Action of heat on
trioxocarbonate (IV) salts and test for
CO3
2-
(iii) Carbon(II) oxide:
Laboratory preparation, properties
including its effect on blood;
sources of carbon (II) oxide to
include charcoal, fire and exhaust
fumes.
(iv) Coal: Different types, products
obtained from destructive
distillation of wood and coal.
(v) Coke: Gasification and uses.
Manufacture of synthetic gas and
uses.

 

Metals and their compounds

(a) General properties of metals
(b) Alkali metals e.g. sodium
(i) Sodium hydroxide:-
Production by electrolysis of
brine, its action on aluminium, zinc and
lead ions.
Uses including precipitation of
metallic hydroxides.
(ii) Sodium trioxocarbonate (IV)
and sodium hydrogen trioxocarbonate
(IV): Production by Solvay process,
properties and uses, e.g.
Na2CO3 in the manufacture of glass.
(iii) Sodium chloride: its occurrence in
sea water and uses, the economic
importance of sea water and the
recovery of sodium chloride.
(c) Alkaline-earth metals, e.g. calcium;
calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide
and calcium trioxocarbonate (IV);
Properties and uses. Preparation of
calcium oxide from sea shells, the
chemical composition of cement
and the setting of mortar. Test for Ca2+.

(d) Aluminium
Purification of bauxite, electrolytic
extraction, properties and uses of
aluminium and its compounds. Test
for A13+
(e) Tin
Extraction from its ores.
Properties and uses.
(f) Metals of the first transition series.
Characteristic properties:
(i) electron configuration
(ii) oxidation states
(iii) complex ion formation
(iv) formation of coloured ions
(v) catalysis
(g) Iron
Extraction from sulphide and oxide
ores, properties and uses, different forms
of iron and their properties and
advantages of steel over iron.
Test for Fe2+ and Fe3+

(h) Copper
Extraction from sulphide and oxide
ores, properties and uses of copper.
Preparation and uses of copper( II )
tetraoxosulphate

(i) Alloy
Steel, stainless steel, brass, bronze,
type- metal, duralumin, soft solder,
permallory and alnico (constituents and
uses only).

Organic Compounds

An introduction to the tetravalency of
carbon, the general formula, IUPAC
nomenclature and the determination of
empirical formula of each class of the
organic compounds mentioned below.
(a) Aliphatic hydrocarbons
(i) Alkanes
Homologous series in relation
to physical properties,
substitution reaction and a few
examples and uses of halogenated
products. Isomerism: structural only (examples on isomerism should
not go beyond six carbon atoms).
Petroleum: composition, fractional
distillation and major products;
cracking and reforming,
Petrochemicals – starting materials of
organic syntheses, quality of petrol
and meaning of octane number.

(ii) Alkenes
Isomerism: structural and geometric
isomerism, additional and
polymerization reactions, polythene
and synthetic rubber as examples of
products of polymerization and its use
in vulcanization.
(iii) Alkynes
Ethyne – production from action of
water on carbides, simple reactions and
properties of ethyne.
(b) Aromatic hydrocarbons e.g. benzene –
structure, properties and uses.
(c) Alkanols
Primary, secondary, tertiary – production
of ethanol by fermentation and from
petroleum by-products. Local examples
of fermentation and distillation, e.g.
gin from palm wine and other local
sources and glycerol as a polyhydric
alkanol.
Reactions of OH group – oxidation as a
distinguishing test among primary, secondary
and tertiary alkanols (Lucas test).

(d) Alkanals and alkanones.
Chemical test to distinguish between
alkanals and alkanones.
(e) Alkanoic acids.
Chemical reactions; neutralization and
esterification, ethanedioic (oxalic) acid
as an example of a dicarboxylic acid
and benzene carboxylic acid as an
example of an aromatic acid.

(f) Alkanoates
Formation from alkanoic acids and
alkanols – fats and oils as alkanoates.
Saponification:
Production of soap and margarine from
alkanoates and distinction between
detergents and soaps.
(g) Amines (Alkanamines) Primary, Secondary,
and tertiary
(h) Carbohydrates
Classification – mono-, di- and
polysaccharides; composition, chemical tests
for simple sugars and reaction with
concentrated tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid.
Hydrolysis of complex sugars e.g. cellulose
from cotton and starch from cassava, the uses
of sugar and starch in the production of
alcoholic beverages, pharmaceuticals and textiles.

(i) Proteins:
Primary structures, hydrolysis and tests
(Ninhydrin, Biuret, Millon’s and
xanthoproteic)
Enzymes and their functions.
(j) Polymers:
Natural and synthetic rubber; addition and
condensation polymerization.
– Methods of preparation, examples and
uses.
Thermoplastic and thermosetting plastics

Chemistry and Industry

Chemical industries: Types, raw materials and
relevancies; Biotechnology

Course Packages:

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