The Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus was used to design this course. The course content is also relevant for other exams, such as the National Examination Council (NECO) exams, the West African Examination Council (WEAC) exams, and the General Certificate of Education (GCE) exams.

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Sample Government CBT

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Sample Government CBT


The Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus was used to design this course. The course content is also relevant for other exams, such as the National Examination Council (NECO) exams, the West African Examination Council (WEAC) exams, and the General Certificate of Education (GCE) exams.

Idam Chijioke Daniel

Idam Chijioke Daniel

Course Instructor

Why study 321exam  Government? Aside from passing your exams, here are the top five reasons;

1. To understand the influence government has on your daily life.

2. To understand why the government produces the policies it does.

3.To understand and interpret current events in a rapidly changing world.

4.To understand how the United States attempts to resolve conflicts and seeks to establish order and security.

5. To develop the ability to solve problems and make good decisions when current.


So, enroll now and let’s get started

Ibrahim Inuwa Ribah

Ibrahim Inuwa Ribah

Assistant Course Instructor

Learning Outcomes

 At the end of this course, candidates should be able to:

i. Appreciate the meaning of government;
ii. Analyze the framework and specify the institutions of government;
iii. Appreciate the basic principles of democratic governance and their application in
iv. Explain the concept of citizenship and define the duties and obligations of a citizen;
v. Appreciate the process of political development in Nigeria;
vi. Evaluate the political development and problems of governance in Nigeria;
vii. Understand the determinants and dynamics of foreign policy as it relates to Nigeria;
viii. Assess the role of Nigeria as a member of the international community and the
workings of international organizations.

Course Syllabus


1. Basic Concepts in Government
a. Power, Authority, Legitimacy,
b. Society, State, Nation, Nation-State;
c. Political Processes;
Political Socialization, Political
Participation, Political Culture.
2. Forms of Government:
Monarchy, Aristocracy, Oligarchy,
Autocracy, Republicanism, Democracydefinitions, features, merits and demerits.
3. Arms of Government:
a. The Legislature – types, structure,
functions, powers;
b. The Executive – types, functions,
c. The Judiciary – functions, power components.
d. Their relationships
4. Structures of Governance:
a. Unitary – features, reasons for
adoption, merits and demerits
b. Federal – features, reasons for
adoption, merits and demerits
c. Confederal – features, reasons for
adoption, merits and demerits.
5. Systems of Governance:
Presidential, Parliamentary and
6. Political Ideologies:
Communalism, Feudalism, Capitalism,
Socialism, Communism, Totalitarianism,
Fascism, Nazism.
7. Constitution:
Meaning, Sources, Functions, Types –
Written, Unwritten, Rigid and Flexible.
8. Principles of Democratic Government:
Ethics and Accountability in Public
Office, Separation of Power, Checks and
Balances, Individual and Collective
Responsibility, Constitutionalism, Rule of
Law, Representative Government.
9. Processes of Legislation:
Legislative Enactments – acts, edicts,
bye-laws, delegated legislation, decrees.
10. Citizenship:
a. Meaning, types;
b. Citizenship rights;
c. Dual citizenship, renunciation,
d. Duties and obligations of
e. Duties and obligations of the
11. The Electoral Process:
a. Suffrage – evolution, types;
b. Election – types, ingredients of free
and fair election;
c. Electoral System – types, advantages
and disadvantages of each;
d. Electoral Commission – functions,

12. Political Parties and Party Systems:
a. Political parties – Definition,
Organization, functions.
b. Party Systems – Definition,
organization, functions.
13. Pressure Groups:
a. Definition, types, functions and
modes of operation.
b. Differences between Pressure Groups
and Political Parties.
14. Public Opinion:
a. Meaning, formation and
b. Functions and limitations.
15. The Civil Service:
Definition, characteristics, functions,
structure, control and problems.


1. Pre – colonial Polities:
Pre-jihad Hausa, Emirate, Tiv, Igbo,
a. Their structural organization;
b. The functions of their various
political institutions.
2. Imperialist Penetration:
a. The British process of acquisition –
trade, missionary activities, company
rule, crown colony, protectorate;
b. The British colonial administrative
policy – direct and indirect rule;
c. The French colonial administrative
policy – assimilation and association;
d. Impact of British colonial ruleeconomic, political, socio-cultural;
e. Comparison of British and French
colonial administration.

3. Process of Decolonization:
a. Nationalism – Meaning, Types;
b. Nationalist Movements – emergence,
goals, strategies;
c. Nationalist Leaders – Herbert
Macaulay, Nnamdi Azikiwe,
Obafemi Awolowo, Ahmadu Bello,
Ladipo Solanke, Aminu Kano, J. S.
Tarka, Tafawa Balewa and others;
d. Emergence of nationalist parties;
e. Influence of external factors.
4. Constitutional Development in Nigeria:
a. Hugh Clifford Constitution (1922)
b. Arthur Richards Constitution (1946)
c. John Macpherson Constitution (1951)
d. Oliver Lyttleton Constitution (1954)
e. Independence Constitution (1960)
Their features, merits and demerits.
5. Post – Independence Constitutions:
1963, 1979, 1989 and 1999–
characteristics and shortcomings.
6. Institutions of Government in the Post
– Independence Nigeria:
a. The Legislative – structure, functions
and working.
b. The Executive – structure, functions
and workings.
c. The Judiciary – structure, functions
and workings.
7. Public Commissions Established by the
1979 and Subsequent Constitutions:
The Civil Service Commission, the Public
Complaints Commission, Electoral
Commissions, National Boundary
Commission and others – objectives
functions and problems .
8. Political Parties and Party Politics in
Post-Independence Nigeria:
a. First Republic
b. Second Republic
c. Third Republic
d. Fourth Republic
– Evolution, membership spread,
structure etc

9. The Structure and Workings of
Nigerian Federalism:
a. Rationale for a Federal System;
b. Tiers of government and their
c. Creation of States – 1963, 1967,
1976, 1987, 1991, 1996;
d. Problems of Nigerian Federalism –
census, revenue allocation, conflicts
etc. solutions e.g. Federal character,
10. Public Corporations and Parastatals:
a. Definition, types, purpose and
b. Finance, control and problems;
c. Deregulation, privatization,
commercialization – objectives,
features, merits and demerits;
d. Comparison between public
corporations and parastatals.
11. Local Government:
a. Local government administration
prior to 1976;
b. Features of local government reforms
(1976, 1989) – structure, functions,
finance and inter-governmental
c. Traditional rulers and local
d. Problems of local government
administration in Nigeria.
12. The Military in Nigerian Politics:
a. Factors that led to military
b. Structure of military regimes;
c. Impact of military rule – political, e.g
creation of states, introduction of
unitary system (Unification Decree
NO. 34) etc. economic, e.g SAP, etc.
d. Processes of military disengagement


1. Foreign Policy:
– Definition, purpose, determining
factors; formulation and
2. Nigeria’s Foreign Policy:
a. Relations with major powers;
b. Relations with developing
countries, e.g the Technical Aid
Corps (TAC), etc.
c. Nigeria’s Non-Alignment Policy.
3. Relations with African Countries:
a. Africa as the “centre piece” of
Nigeria’s forieign policy – guiding
principles, implementation and
b. NEPAD – origin, objectives and
4. Nigeria in International Organizations
a. The United Nations;
b. The Commonwealth;
c. The Organization of African Unity;
d. The African Union;
e. The Economic Community of West
African States (ECOWAS);
f. The Organization of Petroleum
Exporting Countries (OPEC).


1. International Organizations
b. OAU, AU;
c. Commonwealth;
d. OPEC;
e. UNO;
f. African Petroleum Producers
– Origin, objectives, structure, functions,
achievements, problems and prospects of
these organizations.

Course Packages:

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