Course Content

The Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus

Was used to design our courses. Our course contents are also relevant for other exams, such as the National Examination Council (NECO) exams, the West African Examination Council (WAEC) exams, and the General Certificate of Education (GCE) exams.


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Use of English

Learning Outcomes

At the end of this course, candidates should be able to:

(i) Communicate effectively in both written and spoken English

(ii) Use the English Language for learning at the tertiary level; and

(iii) Pass the exams with ease

Idachaba Sunny

Idachaba Sunny

Course Instructor

We will teach you how to understand exam questions. It doesn’t matter how good your answer is if you misunderstand the question, you may get it wrong. Examiners, such as JAMB and TOEFL love to ask questions with similar answer options, it is a way they keep standards in line.  We will teach you the Use of English and we will be in the course forum to answer your questions.

Ezeukwu Charles Ikenna

Ezeukwu Charles Ikenna

Assistant Course Instructor

Nwite Jacob Obinna

Nwite Jacob Obinna

Assistant Course Instructor

Course Syllabus


(a) Description
(b) Narration
(c) Exposition
(d) Argumentation/persuasion
(i) Each of the three passages to be set (one
will be a cloze test) should reflect
various disciplines and be about 200
words long.
(ii) Questions on the passages will test the
(a) Comprehension of the whole or
part of each passage.
(b) Comprehension of words, phrases,
clauses, sentences, figures of
speech and idioms as used in the
(c) Coherence and logical reasoning
(deductions, inferences, etc).
(d) The Last Days at Forcados High
School, A. H. Mohammed.
(e) Synthesis of ideas from the

Lexis and Structure

(a) Synonyms
(b) Antonyms
(c) Homonyms
(d) Clause and sentence patterns
(e) Word classes and their functions
(f) Mood, tense, aspect;
(g) Agreement/concord and degree,
(h) Comparative and superlative,
(i) Question tags
(j) Punctuation and spelling
(k) Ordinary usage, figurative usage and
idiomatic usage.

Oral Forms

(a) Vowels (monothongs and diphthongs)
(b) Consonants (including clusters)
(c) Rhymes (including homophones)
(d) Word stress (monosyllabic and polysyllabic)
(e) Intonation (emphatic stress)



Learning Outcomes

At the end of this course, candidates should be able to:

(i) Acquire computational and manipulative skills;
(ii) Develop precise, logical and formal reasoning skills;
(iii) Develop deductive skills in interpretation of graphs, diagrams and data;
(iv) Apply mathematical concepts to resolve issues in daily living.

Oladipupo Simon Oladele

Oladipupo Simon Oladele

Course Instructor

Logical thinking is a transferable skill and it is needed in every career. Employers don’t expect every employee to come into a job with subject-matter expertise, but they do expect that people can think critically and learn quickly. Maths education builds these logical thinking skills. This course will help you acquire those skills you need to pass your exam, thrive in your tertiary education and succeed in the workplace.

Engr Oyibo Abdulrahaman

Engr Oyibo Abdulrahaman

Assistant Course Instructor

Course Syllabus


1. Number bases:
(a) Operations in different number bases from 2 to 10;
(b) Conversion from one base to another including fractional parts.
2. Fractions, Decimals, Approximations
and Percentages:
(a) Fractions and decimals;
(b) Significant figures;
(c) Decimal places;
(d) Percentage errors;
(e) Simple interest;
(f) Profit and loss percent;
(g) Ratio, proportion and rate;
(h) Shares and valued-added tax (VAT)

3. Indices, Logarithms, and Surds:
(a) Laws of indices;
(b) Standard form;
(c) Laws of logarithm;
(d) The logarithm of any positive number to a given base;(e) change of bases in logarithm and application;
(f) Relationship between indices and logarithm;
(g) Surds.

4. Sets:
(a) Types of sets
(b) Algebra of sets
(c) Venn diagrams and their applications.




1. Polynomials:
(a) Change of subject of formula
(b) Factor and remainder theorems
(c) Factorization of polynomials of degree not exceeding 3.
(d) Multiplication and division of polynomials
(e) Roots of polynomials not exceeding degree 3
(f) Simultaneous equations including one linear one quadratic;
(g) Graphs of polynomials of degree not greater than 3.

2. Variation:
(a) Direct
(b) Inverse
(c) Joint
(d) Partial
(e) Percentage increase and decrease.
3. Inequalities:
(a) Analytical and graphical solutions of linear inequalities;
(b) Quadratic inequalities with integral roots only.

4. Progression:
(a) nth term of a progression
(b) Sum of A. P. and G. P.

5. Binary Operations:
(a) Properties of closure, commutativity, associativity and distributivity;
(b) Identity and inverse elements (simple cases only).

6. Matrices and Determinants:
(a) Algebra of matrices not exceeding 3 x 3;
(b) Determinants of matrices not exceeding 3 x 3;
(c) Inverses of 2 x 2 matrices
[excluding quadratic and higher degree equations].


1. Euclidean Geometry:
(a) Properties of angles and lines
(b) Polygons: triangles, quadrilaterals and
general polygons;
(c) Circles: angle properties, cyclic
quadrilaterals and intersecting chords;
(d) Construction.
2. Mensuration:
(a) lengths and areas of plane geometrical
(b) Lengths of arcs and chords of a circle;
(c) Perimeters and areas of sectors and
segments of circles;
(d) Surface areas and volumes of simple
solids and composite figures;
(e) The earth as a sphere:- longitudes and
3. Loci:
locus in 2 dimensions based on geometric
principles relating to lines and curves.

4. Coordinate Geometry:
(a) Midpoint and gradient of a line
(b) Distance between two points;
(c) Parallel and perpendicular lines;
(d) Equations of straight lines.

5. Trigonometry:
(a) Trigonometrical ratios of angels;
(b) Angles of elevation and depression;
(c) Bearings;
(d) Areas and solutions of a triangle;
(e) graphs of sine and cosine;
(f) Sine and cosine formulae


I. Differentiation:
(a) Limit of a function
(b) Differentiation of explicit
algebraic and simple
trigonometrical functions –
sine, cosine and tangent.
2. Application of differentiation:
(a) Rate of change;
(b) Maxima and minima.
3. Integration:
(a) Integration of explicit
algebraic and simple
trigonometrical functions;
(b) Area under the curve


1. Representation of data:
(a) Frequency distribution;
(b) Histogram, bar chart and pie chart.
2. Measures of Location:
(a) Mean, mode and median of ungrouped
and grouped data – (simple cases only);
(b) Cumulative frequency

3. Measures of Dispersion:
range, mean deviation, variance and standard
4. Permutation and Combination:
(a) Linear and circular arrangements;
(b) Arrangements involving repeated objects.
(a) Experimental probability (tossing of coin,
throwing of a dice etc);
(b) Addition and multiplication of probabilities
(mutual and independent cases).



Learning Outcomes

 At the end of this course, candidates should be able to:

(I) Demonstrate sufficient knowledge and understanding of the basic concepts, tools and
general applications to economic analysis;
(ii) Identify and explain the basic structures, operations and roles of the various economic units
and institutions (national and international);
(iii) Describe major economic activities – production, distribution and consumption;
(iv) Identify and appraise the basic and current economic problems of society;
(v) Develop the competence to proffer solutions to economic problems identified.

Ifeanyi James Princewill

Ifeanyi James Princewill

Course Instructor

Economics, like English and Mathematics is also important, more so because it gives students the reason to learn how to read and solve other Mathematical skills. In the course, I will also show you how to apply economic ideas in your daily endeavour.

Ezeukwu Charles Ikenna

Ezeukwu Charles Ikenna

Assistant Course Instructor

Course Syllabus

Economics as a science

a. Basic Concepts:
Wants, Scarcity, Choice, The scale of
Preference, Opportunity cost, Rationality,
Production, Distribution, Consumption.

bi. Economic problems of:
What, how, and for whom to produce and
the efficiency of resource use.
bii. Application of PPF to the solution of economic

Economic Systems

a. Types and characteristics of free
enterprise, centrally planned
and mixed economies
b. Solutions to economic problems under
different systems
c. Contemporary issues in economic systems (economic reforms e.g deregulation,
banking sector consolidation, cash policy

Methods and Tools of Economic Analysis

a. Scientific Approach:
i. inductive and deductive methods
ii. positive and normative reasoning
b. Basic Tools
i. tables, charts and graphs
ii. measures of central tendency: mean,
median and mode, and their
iii. measures of dispersion; variance,
standard deviation, range and their
iv. merits and demerits of the tool

The Theory of Demand

a. i. meaning and determinants of demand
ii. demand schedules and curves
iii. the distinction between change in
quantity demanded and change in
b. Types of demand:
Composite, derived, competitive and
joint demand:
c. Types, nature and determinants of
elasticity and their measurement –
price, income and cross elasticity of
d. Importance of elasticity of demand to
consumers, producers and government.

The Theory of Consumer Behavior

a. Basic Concepts:
i. utility (cardinal, ordinal, total
average and marginal utilities)
ii. indifference curve and budget
b. Diminishing marginal utility and the law
of demand.
c. Consumer equilibrium using the
indifference curve and marginal
d. Effects of shift in the budget line and the
indifference curve.
e. Consumer surplus and its applications

The Theory of Supply

a. i. Meaning and determinants of
ii. Supply schedules and supply curves
iii. the distinction between change in
quantity supplied and change in
b. Types of Supply:
Joint/complementary, competitive and
c. Elasticity of Supply:
determinants, measurements, nature and

The Theory of Price Determination

a. The concepts of market and price
b. Functions of the price system
c. i. Equilibrium price and quantity in
product and factor markets
ii. Price legislation and its effects

d. The effects of changes in supply and
demand on equilibrium price and

The Theory of Production

a. Meaning and types of production
b. Concepts of production and their
interrelationships (TP, AP, MP and the
law of variable proportion).
c. Division of labour and specialization
d. Scale of Production:
Internal and external economies of scale
and their implications.
e. Production functions and returns to
f. Producers’ equilibrium isoquant-isocost
and marginal analyses.
g. Factors affecting productivity.

Theory of Costs and Revenue

a. The concepts of cost:
Fixed, Variable, Total Average and
b. The concepts of revenue: Total, average
and marginal revenue;
c. Accountants’ and Economists’ notions
of cost
d. Short-run and long-run costs
e. The marginal cost and the supply curve
of firm.

Market Structures

a. Perfectly competitive market:
i. Assumptions and characteristics;

ii. Short-run and long-run equilibrium
of a perfect competitor;
b. Imperfect Market:
i. Pure monopoly, discriminatory
monopoly and monopolistic
ii. Short-run and long-run equilibrium
c. Break-even/shut-down analysis in the
various markets.

National Income

a. The Concepts of GNP, GDP, NI, NNP
b. National Income measurements and
their problems
c. Uses and limitations of national income
d. The circular flow of income (two and
three-sector models)
e. The concepts of consumption,
investment and savings
f. The multiplier and its effects
g. Elementary theory of income
determination and equilibrium national

Money and Inflation

a. Types, characteristics and functions of
b. Demand for money and the supply of
c. Quantity Theory of money (Fisher
d. The value of money and the price level
e. Inflation: Types, measurements, effects
and control
f. Deflation: Measurements, effects and

Financial Institutions

a. Types and functions of financial
institutions (traditional, central bank,
mortgage banks, merchant banks,

insurance companies, building
b. The role of financial institutions in
economic development;
c. Money and capital markets
d. Financial sector regulations
e. Deposit money banks and the creation
of money
f. Monetary policy and its instruments
g. Challenges facing financial institutions
in Nigeria.

Public Finance

a. Meaning and objectives
b. Fiscal policy and its instruments
c. Sources of government revenue (taxes
royalties, rents, grants and aids)
d. Principles of taxation
e. Tax incidence and its effects
f. The effects of public expenditure
g. Government budget and public debts
h. Revenue allocation and resource control
in Nigeria.

Economic Growth and Development

a. Meaning and scope
b. Indicators of growth and development
c. Factors affecting growth and
d. Problems of development in Nigeria
e. Development planning in Nigeria

Agriculture in Nigeria

a. Types and features;
b. The role of agriculture in economic
c. Problems of agriculture;
d. Effects of agricultural policies and their
e. Instability in agricultural incomes
(causes, effects and solutions).

Industry and Industrialisation

a. Concepts and effects of location and
localisation of industry in Nigeria;
b. Strategies and Industrialisation in
c. Industrialisation and economic
development in Nigeria;
d. Funding and management of business
e. Factors determining the size of firms.

Business Organisations

a. Private enterprises (e.g. sole proprietorship,
partnership, limited liability companies
and cooperative societies)
b. Problems of private enterprises;
c. Public enterprises and their problems;
d. Funding and management of business
e. Factors determining the size of firms;
f. Privatisation and Commercialisation as
solutions to the problems of public


a. Meaning and theories;
b. Census: importance and problems.

c. Size and growth: over-population, underpopulation and optimum population.
d. Structure and distribution;
e. Population policy and economic

International Trade

a. Meaning and basis for international trade
(absolute and comparative costs etc)
b. Balance of trade and balance of
payments: problems and corrective
c. Composition and direction of Nigeria’s
foreign trade;
d. Exchange rate: meaning, types and

International Economic Organizations

Roles and relevance of international
organization e.g. ECOWAS, AU, EU, ECA,
IMF, EEC, OECD, World Bank, IBRD,
WTO, ADB and UNCTAD etc to Nigeria

Factors of Production and their Theories

a. Types, features and rewards;
b. Determination of wages, interest and
c. Theories: marginal productivity theory
of wages and liquidity preference
d. Factor mobility and efficiency;
e. Unemployment and its solutions



Learning Outcomes

 At the end of this course, candidates should be able to:
(i) Understand the basic principles and concepts in chemistry;
(ii) Interpret scientific data relating to chemistry;
(iii) Deduce the relationships between chemistry and other sciences;
(iv) Apply the knowledge of chemistry to industry and everyday life.

Okoronkwo Nnaemeka David

Okoronkwo Nnaemeka David

Course Instructor

I encourage you to see this course beyond merely passing exams, but as fundamental to human world. Chemistry plays crucial role and touches almost every aspect of human existence, for instance, it is essential in meeting human basic needs such as food, clothing, shelter, health, energy, and water. The assistant course instructor and I will be in the course forum to answer your questions, remember to attend all our live sessions. Cheers.

kelvin Oghenetega Ibru-Adegbeji

kelvin Oghenetega Ibru-Adegbeji

Assistant Course Instructor

Course Syllabus

Separation of mixtures and purification of chemical substances

(a) Pure and impure substances
(b) Boiling and melting points.
(c) Elements, compounds and mixtures
(d) Chemical and physical changes.
(e) Separation processes:
evaporation, simple and fractional distillation,
sublimation, filtration, crystallization, paper
and column chromatography, simple and
fractional crystallization, magnetization,

Chemical combination

Stoichiometry, laws of definite and multiple
proportions, law of conservation of matter,
Gay Lussac’s law of combining volumes,
Avogadro’s law; chemical symbols, formulae,
equations and their uses, relative atomic mass
based on 12C=12, the mole concept and
Avogadro’s number.

Kinetic theory of matter and Gas Laws

(a) An outline of the kinetic theory of matter;
(i) melting,
(ii) vaporization

(iii) boiling
(iv) freezing
(v) condensation
in terms of molecular motion and Brownian
(b)(i) The laws of Boyle, Charles, Graham and
Dalton (law of partial pressure); combined gas
law, molar volume and atomicity of gases.
(ii) The ideal gas equation (PV = nRT).
(iii) The relationship between vapour density of
gases and the relative molecular mass.

Atomic structure and bonding

(a) (i)The concept of atoms, molecules and ions,
the works of Dalton, Millikan, Rutherford,
Moseley, Thompson and Bohr.
(ii) Atomic structure, electron configuration,
atomic number, mass number and isotopes;
specific examples should be drawn from
elements of atomic number 1 to 20.
(iii) Shapes of s and p orbitals.
(b) The periodic table and periodicity of
elements, presentation of the periodic table
with a view to recognizing families of
elements e.g. alkali metals, halogens, the
noble gases and transition metals. The
variation of the following properties:
ionization energy, ionic radii, electron
affinity and electronegativity

(c) Chemical bonding.
Electrovalency and covalency, the electron
configuration of elements and their tendency
to attain the noble gas structure. Hydrogen
bonding and metallic bonding as special
types of electrovalency and covalency
respectively; coordinate bond as a type
of covalent bond as illustrated by complexes
like [Fe(CN)6]
, [Fe(CN)6]
, [Cu(NH3)4]
and [Ag(NH3)2]
; van der Waals’ forces
should be mentioned as a special type of
bonding forces.
(d) Shapes of simple molecules: linear ((H2, O2,
C12,HCl and CO2), non-linear (H2O) and
tetrahedral; (CH4) and pyramidal (NH3).

(e) Nuclear Chemistry:
(i) Radioactivity – Types and properties of
(ii) Nuclear reactions. Simple equations,
uses and applications of natural and
artificial radioactivity.


(a) The natural gaseous constituents and
their proportion in the air.
– nitrogen, oxygen, water vapour, carbon
(IV) oxide and the noble gases (argon
and neon).
(b) Air as a mixture and some uses of the
noble gas.


(a) Water as a product of the combustion
of hydrogen and its composition by
(b) Water as a solvent, atmospheric gases
dissolved in water and their biological
(c) Hard and soft water:
Temporary and permanent
hardness and methods of softening
hard water.
(d) Treatment of water for town supply.
(e) Water of crystallization, efflorescence,
deliquescence and hygroscopy.
Examples of the substances exhibiting
these properties and their uses


(a) Unsaturated, saturated and
supersaturated solutions. Solubility
curves and simple deductions from
them, (solubility defined in terms of
mole per dm3) and simple

(b) Solvents for fats, oil and paints
and the use of such solvents
for the removal of stains.
(c) False solution (Suspensions and colloids):
Properties and examples.
Harmattan haze and water paints as examples
of suspensions and fog, milk, aerosol spray,
emulsion paints and rubber solution as
examples of colloids.


Environmental Pollution

(a) Sources and effects of pollutants.
(b) Air pollution:
Examples of air pollutants such as
H2S, CO, SO2, oxides of nitrogen,
chlorofluorocarbons and dust.
(c) Water pollution
Sewage and oil pollution should be
(d) Soil pollution:
Oil spillage, Biodegradable and
non-biodegradable pollutants

Acids, bases and salts

(a) General characteristics and properties of
acids, bases and salts. Acids/base indicators,
basicity of acids; normal, acidic, basic and
double salts. An acid defined as a substance
whose aqueous solution furnishes H3O+
or as a proton donor. Ethanoic, citric and
tartaric acids as examples of naturally
occurring organic acids, alums as examples
of double salts, preparation of salts by
neutralization, precipitation and action of
acids on metals. Oxides and
trioxocarbonate (IV) salts
(b) Qualitative comparison of the
conductances of molar solutions of
strong and weak acids and bases,
relationship between conductance and
amount of ions present.

(c) pH and pOH scale; Simple calculations

(d) Acid/base titrations.
(e) Hydrolysis of salts: Principle
Simple examples such as
NH4Cl, AlCl3, Na2CO3 and CH3COONa

Oxidation and reduction

(a) Oxidation in terms of the addition of
oxygen or removal of hydrogen.
(b) Reduction as removal of oxygen or
addition of hydrogen.
(c) Oxidation and reduction in terms of
electron transfer.
(d) Use of oxidation numbers.
Oxidation and reduction treated as change
in oxidation number and use of oxidation
numbers in balancing simple equations.
(e) IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic
compounds using oxidation number.
(f) Tests for oxidizing and reducing agents.


(a) Electrolytes and non-electrolytes.
Faraday’s laws of electrolysis.
(b) (i) Electrolysis of dilute H2SO4, aqueous
CuSO4, CuC12 solution, dilute and
concentrated NaC1 solutions and
fused NaC1
(ii) Factors affecting discharge of ions at
the electrodes.

(c) Uses of electrolysis:
Purification of metals e.g. copper and
production of elements and compounds
(Al, Na, O2, Cl2 and NaOH).
(d) Electrochemical cells:
Redox series (K, Ca, Na, Mg,
Al, Zn, Fe, Sn, Pb, H, Cu, Hg, Ag, Au,)
half-cell reactions and electrode potentials.
(Simple calculations only).
(e) Corrosion as an electrolytic process,
cathodic protection of metals,
painting, electroplating and coating
with grease or oil as ways of
preventing iron from corrosion


Energy changes

(a) Energy changes(∆H) accompanying physical
and chemical changes:
dissolution of substances in/or
reaction with water e.g. Na, NaOH,
K, NH4Cl. Endothermic (+∆H) and
exothermic (-∆H) reactions.
(b) Entropy as an order-disorder
phenomenon: simple illustrations
like mixing of gases and dissolution
of salts.
(c) Spontaneity of reactions:
∆G0 = 0 as a criterion for equilibrium, ∆G
greater or less than zero as a criterion for
non-spontaneity or spontaneity respectively

Rates of Chemical Reaction

(a) Elementary treatment of the following factors
which can change the rate of a chemical
(i) Temperature e.g. the reaction between HCl
and Na2S2O3 or Mg and HCl

(ii) Concentration e.g. the reaction between HCl
and Na2S2O3, HCl and marble and the iodine
clock reaction, for gaseous systems, pressure
may be used as concentration term.
(iii) Surface area e.g. the reaction
between marble and HCl with
marble in
(i) powdered form
(ii) lumps of the same mass.
(iv) Catalyst e.g. the decomposition
of H2O2 or KClO3 in the
presence or absence of MnO2
(b) Reaction rate curves.
(c) Activation energy
Qualitative treatment of Arrhenius’ law and
the collision theory, effect of light on some
reactions. e.g. halogenation of alkanes

Chemical equilibra

Reversible reactions and factors governing
the equilibrium position. Dynamic
equilibrium. Le Chatelier’s principle and
equilibrium constant. Simple examples to
include action of steam on iron and
N2O4 2NO2.

Non-metals and their compounds

(a) Hydrogen: commercial production from
water gas and cracking of petroleum
fractions, laboratory preparation,
properties, uses and test for hydrogen.
(b) Halogens: Chlorine as a representative
element of the halogen. Laboratory
preparation, industrial preparation by
electrolysis, properties and uses, e.g.
water sterilization, bleaching,
manufacture of HCl, plastics and

Hydrogen chloride and Hydrochloric acid:
Preparation and properties. Chlorides and test for
(c) Oxygen and Sulphur
(i) Oxygen:
Laboratory preparation, properties and uses.
Commercial production from liquid air.
Oxides: Acidic,basic, amphoteric and neutral,
trioxygen (ozone) as an allotrope and the
importance of ozone in the atmosphere.
(ii) Sulphur:
Uses and allotropes:
preparation of allotropes is not expected .
Preparation, properties and uses of sulphur(IV)
oxide, the reaction of SO2 with alkalis.
Trioxosulphate (IV) acid and its salts, the effect
of acids on salts of trioxosulphate(IV),
Tetraoxosulphate(VI) acid: Commercial
preparation (contact process only), properties as
a dilute acid, an oxidizing and a dehydrating
agent and uses. Test for SO4
Hydrogen sulphide: Preparation and properties
as a weak acid, reducing agent and precipitating
agent. Test for S2-

(d) Nitrogen:
(i) Laboratory preparation
(ii) Production from liquid air
(iii) Ammonia:
Laboratory and industrial
preparations (Haber Process only),
properties and uses, ammonium salts
and their uses, oxidation of
ammonia to nitrogen (IV)
oxide and trioxonitrate (V)
Test for NH4
(iv) Trioxonitrate (V) acid:
Laboratory preparation
from ammonia;
properties and uses. Trioxonitrate (V) salt-
action of heat and uses. Test for NO3

(v) Oxides of nitrogen:
Properties.The nitrogen cycle.
(e) Carbon:
(i) Allotropes: Uses and
(ii) Carbon(IV) oxide-
Laboratory preparation, properties
and uses. Action of heat on
trioxocarbonate (IV) salts and test for
(iii) Carbon(II) oxide:
Laboratory preparation, properties
including its effect on blood;
sources of carbon (II) oxide to
include charcoal, fire and exhaust
(iv) Coal: Different types, products
obtained from destructive
distillation of wood and coal.
(v) Coke: Gasification and uses.
Manufacture of synthetic gas and


Metals and their compounds

(a) General properties of metals
(b) Alkali metals e.g. sodium
(i) Sodium hydroxide:-
Production by electrolysis of
brine, its action on aluminium, zinc and
lead ions.
Uses including precipitation of
metallic hydroxides.
(ii) Sodium trioxocarbonate (IV)
and sodium hydrogen trioxocarbonate
(IV): Production by Solvay process,
properties and uses, e.g.
Na2CO3 in the manufacture of glass.
(iii) Sodium chloride: its occurrence in
sea water and uses, the economic
importance of sea water and the
recovery of sodium chloride.
(c) Alkaline-earth metals, e.g. calcium;
calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide
and calcium trioxocarbonate (IV);
Properties and uses. Preparation of
calcium oxide from sea shells, the
chemical composition of cement
and the setting of mortar. Test for Ca2+.

(d) Aluminium
Purification of bauxite, electrolytic
extraction, properties and uses of
aluminium and its compounds. Test
for A13+
(e) Tin
Extraction from its ores.
Properties and uses.
(f) Metals of the first transition series.
Characteristic properties:
(i) electron configuration
(ii) oxidation states
(iii) complex ion formation
(iv) formation of coloured ions
(v) catalysis
(g) Iron
Extraction from sulphide and oxide
ores, properties and uses, different forms
of iron and their properties and
advantages of steel over iron.
Test for Fe2+ and Fe3+

(h) Copper
Extraction from sulphide and oxide
ores, properties and uses of copper.
Preparation and uses of copper( II )

(i) Alloy
Steel, stainless steel, brass, bronze,
type- metal, duralumin, soft solder,
permallory and alnico (constituents and
uses only).

Organic Compounds

An introduction to the tetravalency of
carbon, the general formula, IUPAC
nomenclature and the determination of
empirical formula of each class of the
organic compounds mentioned below.
(a) Aliphatic hydrocarbons
(i) Alkanes
Homologous series in relation
to physical properties,
substitution reaction and a few
examples and uses of halogenated
products. Isomerism: structural only (examples on isomerism should
not go beyond six carbon atoms).
Petroleum: composition, fractional
distillation and major products;
cracking and reforming,
Petrochemicals – starting materials of
organic syntheses, quality of petrol
and meaning of octane number.

(ii) Alkenes
Isomerism: structural and geometric
isomerism, additional and
polymerization reactions, polythene
and synthetic rubber as examples of
products of polymerization and its use
in vulcanization.
(iii) Alkynes
Ethyne – production from action of
water on carbides, simple reactions and
properties of ethyne.
(b) Aromatic hydrocarbons e.g. benzene –
structure, properties and uses.
(c) Alkanols
Primary, secondary, tertiary – production
of ethanol by fermentation and from
petroleum by-products. Local examples
of fermentation and distillation, e.g.
gin from palm wine and other local
sources and glycerol as a polyhydric
Reactions of OH group – oxidation as a
distinguishing test among primary, secondary
and tertiary alkanols (Lucas test).

(d) Alkanals and alkanones.
Chemical test to distinguish between
alkanals and alkanones.
(e) Alkanoic acids.
Chemical reactions; neutralization and
esterification, ethanedioic (oxalic) acid
as an example of a dicarboxylic acid
and benzene carboxylic acid as an
example of an aromatic acid.

(f) Alkanoates
Formation from alkanoic acids and
alkanols – fats and oils as alkanoates.
Production of soap and margarine from
alkanoates and distinction between
detergents and soaps.
(g) Amines (Alkanamines) Primary, Secondary,
and tertiary
(h) Carbohydrates
Classification – mono-, di- and
polysaccharides; composition, chemical tests
for simple sugars and reaction with
concentrated tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid.
Hydrolysis of complex sugars e.g. cellulose
from cotton and starch from cassava, the uses
of sugar and starch in the production of
alcoholic beverages, pharmaceuticals and textiles.

(i) Proteins:
Primary structures, hydrolysis and tests
(Ninhydrin, Biuret, Millon’s and
Enzymes and their functions.
(j) Polymers:
Natural and synthetic rubber; addition and
condensation polymerization.
– Methods of preparation, examples and
Thermoplastic and thermosetting plastics

Chemistry and Industry

Chemical industries: Types, raw materials and
relevancies; Biotechnology



Learning Outcomes

 At the end of this course, candidates should be able to:

(i) Demonstrate sufficient knowledge of the concepts of the diversity interdependence and unity of
(ii) Account for the continuity of life through reorganization, inheritance, and evolution;
(iii) Apply biological principles and concepts to everyday life, especially to matters affecting living
things, individuals, society, the environment, community health, and the economy.

Kelvin Ogbenetega Ibru-Adogbeji

Kelvin Ogbenetega Ibru-Adogbeji

Course Instructor

By studying Biology, students learn to make more informed decisions about their own health and about significant biological issues such as genetically modified crops, the use of antibiotics and the eradication of invasive species. In this course, I will bring you up to speed with these realities which will, in turn, help you to pass your exams. Remember to ask questions in the course forum and attend all live sessions.

John Sunday Emmanuel

John Sunday Emmanuel

Assistant Course Instructor

Course Syllabus


1. Living organisms:
a. Characteristics
b. Cell structure and functions of cell Components
c. Level of organization
i. Cell e.g. euglena and paramecium,
ii. Tissue, e.g. epithelial tissues and hydra

iii. Organ, e.g. onion bulb
iv. Systems, e.g. reproductive, digestive and

v. Organisms e.g. Chlamydomonas
2. Evolution among the following:
a. Monera (prokaryotes), e.g. bacteria and blue green algae.
b. Protista (protozoans and protophyta),
e.g. Amoeba, Euglena and Paramecium
c. Fungi, e.g. mushroom and Rhizopus.
d. Plantae (plants)
i. Thallophyta (e.g. Spirogyra)
ii. Bryophyta (mosses and liveworts) e.g.
Brachmenium and Merchantia.
iii. Pteridophyta (ferns) e.g. Dryopteris.

iv. Spermatophyta (Gymnospermae and
– Gymnosperms e.g. Cycads and conifers.
– Angiosperms (monocots, e.g. maize; dicots,
e.g. water leaf)
e. Animalia (animals)
i. Invertebrates
– coelenterate (e.g. Hydra)
– Platyhelminthes (flatworms) e.g. Taenia
– Nematoda (roundworms)
– Annelida (e.g. earthworm)
– Arthropoda e.g. mosquito, cockroach,
housefly, bee, butterfly
– Mollusca (e.g. snails)
ii. Multicellular animals (vertebrates)
– pisces (cartilaginous and bony fish)
– Amphibia (e.g. toads and frogs)
– Reptilia (e.g. lizards, snakes and turtles)
– Aves (birds)
– Mammalia (mammals)
3.a Structural/functional and behavioural
adaptations of organisms.

b. adaptive colouration and its functions
c. Behavioural adaptations in social animals
d. Structural adaptations in organisms.


1. Internal structure of a flowering plant

i. Root
ii. Stem
iii. Leaf
b. Internal structure of a mammal
2. Nutrition
a. Modes of nutrition
i. Autotrophic
ii. Heterotrophic

b. Types of Nutrition
c. Plant nutrition
i. Photosynthesis
ii. Mineral requirements
(macro and micro-nutrients)

d. Animal nutrition
i. Classes of food substances; carbohydrates, proteins,
fats and oils, vitamins, mineral salts and water

ii. Food tests (e.g. starch, reducing sugar, protein, oil, fat
iii. The mammalian tooth (structures, types and functions)

iv. Mammalian alimentary canal
v. Nutrition process (ingestion, digestion, absorption,
and assimilation of digested food.
3. Transport
a. Need for transportation
b. Materials for transportation.
Excretory products, gases, manufactured food,
digested food, nutrient, water and hormones)
c. Channels for transportation
i. Mammalian circulatory system (heart, arteries,
veins, and capillaries)
ii Plant vascular system (phloem and xylem)

4. Respiration
a. Respiratory organs and surfaces
b. The mechanism of gaseous exchange in:

i. Plants
ii. Mammals
c. Aerobic respiration
d. Anaerobic respiration
5. Excretion
a. Types of excretory structures:
contractile vacuole, flamecell,
nephridium, Malpighian tubule, kidney,
stoma and lenticel.
b. Excretory mechanisms:
i. Kidneys
ii. lungs
ii. skin
c. Excretory products of plants

6. Support and movement
a. Tropic, tactic, nastic and sleep
movements in plants
b. supporting tissues in animals
c. Types and functions of the skeleton
i. Exoskeleton
ii. Endoskeleton
iii. Functions of the skeleton in animals

7. Reproduction
a. A sexual reproduction
i. Fission as in Paramecium
ii. Budding as in yeast
iii. Natural vegetative propagation
iv. Artificial vegetative propagation.
b. sexual reproduction in flowering plants
i. Floral parts and their functions
ii. Pollination and fertilization
iii. products of sexual reproduction
c. Reproduction in mammals
i. structures and functions of the male and female
reproductive organs
ii. Fertilization and development.
(Fusion of gamates)

8. Growth
a. meaning of growth
b. Germination of seeds and condition
necessary for germination of seeds.
9. Co-ordination and control
a. Nervous coordination:
i. the components, structure and functions
of the central nervous system;
ii. The components and functions of the
peripheral nervous systems;
iii. Mechanism of transmission of impulses;
iv. Reflex action
b. The sense organs
i. skin (tactile)
ii. nose (olfactory)
iii. tongue (taste)
iv. eye (sight)
v. ear (auditory)
c. Hormonal control
i. animal hormonal system
– Pituitary
– thyroid
– parathyroid
– adrenal gland

ii. Plant hormones (phytohormones)

d. Homeostasis
i. Body temperature regulation
ii. Salt and water regulation



1. Factors affecting the distribution of
i. Abiotic
ii. Biotic
2. Symbiotic interactions of plants
and animals
(a) Energy flow in the ecosystem: food chains,
food webs and trophic levels
(b) Nutrient cycling in nature

i. carbon cycle
ii. water cycle
iii. Nitrogen cycle
3. Natural Habitats
(a) Aquatic (e.g. ponds, streams, lakes
seashores and mangrove swamps)
(b) Terrestrial/arboreal (e.g. tree-tops of oil palm,
abandoned farmland or a dry grassy (savanna) field,
and burrow or hole.

4. Local (Nigerian) Biomes)
a. Tropical rainforest
b. Guinea savanna (southern and northern)
c. Sudan Savanna
d. Desert
e. Highlands of montane forests and grasslands of the
Obudu, Jos, Mambilla Plateau.
5. The Ecology of Populations:
(a) Population density and overcrowding.
(b) Adaptation for survival
i. Factors that bring about competition
ii. Intra and inter-specific competition
iii. Relationship between competition and
(c) Factors affecting population sizes:
i. Biotic (e.g. food, pest, disease, predation, competition,
reproductive ability).
ii. Abiotic (e.g. temperature, space, light, rainfall,
topography, pressure, pH, etc.
(d) Ecological succession
i. primary succession
ii. secondary succession
a) (i) characteristics of different types
of soil (sandy, loamy, clayey)
i. soil structure
ii. porosity, capillarity and humus
iii. Components of the soil
i. inorganic
ii. organic
iii. soil organisms
iv. Soil air
v. Soil water
Soil fertility:
i. loss of soil fertility
ii. Renewal and maintenance of soil

7. Humans and Environment
(a) Diseases:
(i) Common and endemic diseases.
ii. Easily transmissible diseases and disease
syndrome such as:
– poliomyelitis
– cholera
– tuberculosis
– sexually transmitted disease/syndrome
(gonorrhea, syphilis, AIDS, etc.
b. Pollution and its control
(i) sources, types, effects and methods of control.
(ii) Sanitation and sewage

(c) Conservation of Natural Resources
(d) Game reserves and National parks


(I) Variation In Population
a. Morphological variations in the physical appearance
of individuals.
(i) size (height, weight)
(ii) Colour (skin, eye, hair, coat of animals, scales
and feathers.
(iii) Fingerprints
b. Physiological variation
(i) Ability to roll tongue
(ii) Ability to taste
phenylthiocarbamide (PTC)
(iii) Blood groups
c. Application of discontinuous
variation in crime detection,
blood transfusion and
determination of paternity.
2. Heredity
a) Inheritance of characters in organisms;
i) Heritable and non-heritable characters.
b) Chromosomes – the basis of heredity;
(i) Structure
(ii) Process of transmission of hereditary
characters from parents to offspring.
c) Probability in genetics and sex determination.
a) Application of the principles of heredity in:
i) Agriculture
(ii) Medicine

b. Sex – linked characters e.g. baldness,
haemophilia, colour blindness, etc.


1. Theories of evolution
a) Lamarck’s theory
b) Darwin’s theory
c) organic theory
2. Evidence of evolution



Learning Outcomes

 At the end of this course, candidates should be able to:

1. Sustain their interest in physics;

2. Develop attitude relevant to physics that encourages accuracy, precision, and objectivity;

3. Interpret physical phenomena, laws, definitions, concepts, and other theories;

4. Demonstrate the ability to solve correctly physics problems using relevant theories and concepts.

Oyibo Abdulrahaman

Oyibo Abdulrahaman

Course Instructor

Studies indicate that Secondary School Physics helps significantly to reduce the failure rate in university-level physics. Students themselves typically indicate that Secondary School Physics is a significant factor in their ability to handle university-level physics topics. Physics hones thinking skills. It is one of the few Secondary School level subjects that exercise both mathematical and verbal skills. Candidates are advised to pay close attention to this course, as it will take them beyond passing their exams.

Oladipupo Simeon Oladele

Oladipupo Simeon Oladele

Assistant Course Instructor

Course Syllabus

Measurements and Units

(a) Length, area and volume: Metre rule,
Venier calipers Micrometer
Screw-guage, measuring cylinder
(b) Mass
(i) unit of mass
(ii) use of simple beam balance
(iii) concept of beam balance
(c) Time
(i) unit of time
(ii) time-measuring devices
(d) Fundamental physical quantities

(e) Derived physical quantities and their
(i) Combinations of fundamental quantities
and determination of their units
(f) Dimensions
(i) definition of dimensions
(ii) simple examples
(g) Limitations of experimental measurements
(i) accuracy of measuring
(ii) simple estimation of errors.
(iii) significant figures.
(iv) standard form

(h) Measurement, position, distance and
(i) concept of displacement
(ii) distinction between distance and
(iii) concept of position and coordinates
(iv) frame of reference


Scalars and Vectors

(i) definition of scalar and vector quantities
(ii) examples of scalar and vector quantities
(iii) relative velocity
(iv) resolution of vectors into two
perpendicular directions including
graphical methods of


(a) Types of motion:
translational, oscillatory, rotational, spin
and random
(b) Relative motion
(c) Causes of motion
(d) Types of force
(i) contact
(ii) force field
(e) Linear motion
(i) speed, velocity and acceleration
(ii) equations of uniformly accelerated
(iii) motion under gravity
(iv) distance-time graph and velocity time
(v) instantaneous velocity and

(f) Projectiles:
(i) calculation of range, maximum height
and time of flight from the ground and
a height
(ii) applications of projectile motion
(g) Newton’s laws of motion:
(i) inertia, mass and force
(ii) relationship between mass and
(iii) impulse and momentum

(iv) force – time graph
(v) conservation of linear momentum
(Coefficient of restitution not
(h) Motion in a circle:
(i) angular velocity and angular
(ii) centripetal and centrifugal forces.
(iii) applications

(i) Simple Harmonic Motion (S.H.M):
(i) definition and explanation of simple
harmonic motion
(ii) examples of systems that execute
(iii) period, frequency and amplitude of
(iv) velocity and acceleration of S.H.M
(v)simple treatment of energy change in
(vi) force vibration and resonance
(simple treatment)

Gravitational field

(i) Newton’s law of universal gravitation
(ii) gravitational potential
(iii) conservative and non-conservative
(iv) acceleration due to gravity
(v) variation of g on the earth’s surface
(iv) distinction between mass and weight
(v) escape velocity
(vi) parking orbit and weightlessness

Equilibrium of Forces

(a) Equilibrium of particles:
(i) equilibrium of coplanar forces
(ii) triangles and polygon of forces
(iii) Lami’s theorem
(b) Principles of moments
(i) moment of a force
(ii) simple treatment and moment of a couple
(iii) applications
(c) Conditions for equilibrium of rigid bodies
under the action of parallel and nonparallel forces
(i) resolution and composition of forces in
two perpendicular directions,
(ii) resultant and equilibrant
(d) Centre of gravity and stability
(i) stable, unstable and neutral equilibra

Work, Energy and Power

(a) Work, Energy and Power
(i) definition
(ii) forms of energy
(vii) conservation of energy
(iv) qualitative treatment between different
forms of energy
(viii) interpretation of area under the forcedistance curve

(b) Energy and society
(i) sources of energy
(ii) renewable and non-renewable energy eg
coal, crude oil etc
(iii) uses of energy
(iv) energy and development

(v) energy diversification
(vi) environmental impact of energy eg global
warming, green house effect and spillage
(vii) energy crises
(viii) conversion of energy
(ix) devices used in energy production.
(c) Dams and energy production
(i) location of dams
(ii) energy production
(d) nuclear energy
(e) solar energy
(i) solar collector
(ii) solar panel for energy supply



(i) static and dynamic friction
(ii) coefficient of limiting friction and its
(iii) advantages and disadvantages of friction
(iv) reduction of friction
(v) qualitative treatment of viscosity and
terminal velocity.
(vi) Stoke’s law

Simple Machines

(i) definition of simple machines
(ii) types of machines
(iii) mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and
efficiency of machines


(i) elastic limit, yield point, breaking point,
Hooke’s law and Young’s modulus

(ii) the spring balance as a device for measuring
(iii.) work done per unit volume in springs and
elastic strings
(i) work done per unit volume in springs and
elastic strings.


(a) Atmospheric Pressure
(i) definition of atmospheric pressure
(ii) units of pressure (S.I) units (Pa)
(iii) measurement of pressure
(iv) simple mercury barometer,
aneroid barometer and manometer.
(v) variation of pressure with height
(vi) the use of barometer as an altimeter.
(b) Pressure in liquids
(i) the relationship between pressure, depth and
density (P = gh)
(ii) transmission of pressure in liquids (Pascal’s
(iii) application

Liquids At Rest

(i) determination of density of solids and liquids
(ii) definition of relative density
(iii) upthrust on a body immersed in a liquid
(iv) Archimede’s principle and law of floatation and applications, e.g. ships and hydrometer

Temperature and Its Measurement

(i) concept of temperature
(ii) thermometric properties
(iii) calibration of thermometers
(iv) temperature scales –Celsius and Kelvin.
(v) types of thermometers
(vi) conversion from one scale of temperature to

Thermal Expansion

(a) Solids
(i) definition and determination of linear,
volume and area expansivities
(ii) effects and applications, e.g. expansion in
building strips and railway lines
(ix)relationship between different expansivities
(b) Liquids
(i) volume expansivity
(ii) real and apparent expansivities
(iii) determination of volume expansivity
(iv) anomalous expansion of water

Gas Laws

(i) Boyle’s law (isothermal process)
(ii) Charle’s law (isobaric process)
(iii) Pressure law (volumetric process
(iv) absolute zero of temperature

(v) general gas quation
= constant )

(vi) ideal gas equation
Eg Pv = nRT
(vii) Van der waal gas

Quantity of Heat

(i) heat as a form of energy
(ii) definition of heat capacity and specific heat
capacity of solids and liquids
(iii) determination of heat capacity and specific
heat capacity of substances by simple
methods e.g method of mixtures and electrical method and Newton’s law of

Change of State

(i) latent heat
(ii) specific latent heats of fusion and
(iii) melting, evaporation and boiling
(iv) the influence of pressure and of dissolved
substances on boiling and melting points.
(ii) application in appliances


(i) unsaturated and saturated vapours
(ii) relationship between saturated vapour
pressure (S.V.P) and boiling
(iii) determination of S.V.P by barometer tube
(iv) formation of dew, mist, fog, and rain
(v) study of dew point, humidity and relative
(vi) hygrometry; estimation of the humidity of
the atmosphere using wet and dry bulb

Structure of Matter and Kinetic Theory

(a) Molecular nature of matter
(i) atoms and molecules
(ii) molecular theory: explanation of Brownian
motion, diffusion, surface tension,
capillarity, adhesion, cohesion and angles of
contact etc
(iii) examples and applications.
(b) Kinetic Theory
(i) assumptions of the kinetic theory
(ii) using the theory to explain the pressure
exerted by gas, Boyle’s law, Charles’ law,
melting, boiling, vapourization, change in temperature, evaporation, etc.

Heat Transfer

(i) conduction, convection and radiation as
modes of heat transfer
(ii) temperature gradient, thermal conductivity
and heat flux
(iii) effect of the nature of the surface on the
energy radiated and absorbed by it.
(iv) the conductivities of common materials.
(v) the thermos flask
(vii) land and sea breeze
(viii) engines


(a) Production and Propagation
(i) wave motion,
(ii) vibrating systems as source of waves
(iii) waves as mode of energy transfer
(iv) distinction between particle motion and
wave motion
(v) relationship between frequency, wavelength
and wave velocity (V=f λ)
(vi) phase difference, wave number and wave
(vii) progressive wave equation e.g
Y = A sin
  vt 


(b) Classification
(i) types of waves; mechanical and
electromagnetic waves
(ii) longitudinal and transverse waves
(iii) stationary and progressive waves
(iv) examples of waves from springs, ropes, stretched strings and the ripple tank.

(c) Characteristics/Properties
(i) reflection, refraction, diffraction and
plane Polarization
(ii) superposition of waves e.g interference
(iii) beats
(iv) doppler effects (qualitative treatment

Propagation of Sound Waves

(i) the necessity for a material medium
(ii) speed of sound in solids, liquids and air;
(iii) reflection of sound; echoes, reverberation
and their applications
(iv) disadvantages of echoes and reverberation

Characteristics of Sound Waves

(i) noise and musical notes
(ii) quality, pitch, intensity and loudness and
their application to musical instruments;
(iii) simple treatment of overtones produced by
vibrating strings and their columns
(iv) acoustic examples of resonance
(v) frequency of a note emitted by air columns in closed and open pipes in relation to their

Light Energy

(a) Sources of Light:
(i) natural and artificial sources of light
(ii) luminous and non-luminous objects
(b) Propagation of light
(i) speed, frequency and wavelength of
(ii) formation of shadows and eclipse
(iii) the pin-hole camera.

Reflection of Light at Plane and Curved Surfaces

(i) laws of reflection.
(ii) application of reflection of light
(iii) formation of images by plane, concave and
convex mirrors and ray diagrams
(iii) use of the mirror formula
(v) linear Magnification

Refraction of Light Through at Plane and Curved Surfaces

(i) explanation of refraction in terms of
velocity of light in the media.
(ii) laws of refraction
(iii) definition of refractive index of a medium
(iv) determination of refractive index of glass
and liquid using Snell’s law
(v) real and apparent depth and lateral
(vi) critical angle and total internal reflection
(b) Glass Prism
(i) use of the minimum deviation formula

Optical Instruments

(i) the principles of microscopes, telescopes,
projectors, cameras and the human eye
(physiological details of the eye are not
(ii) power of a lens
(iii) angular magnification
(iv) near and far points
(v) sight defects and their corrections

Dispersion of light and colours

(a) dispersion of light and colours
(i) dispersion of white light by a triangular
(ii) production of pure spectrum
(iii) colour mixing by addition and subtraction
(iv) colour of objects and colour filters
(b)electgromagnetic spectrum
(i) description of sources and uses of various
types of radiation.


(i) existence of positive and negative charges
in matter
(ii) charging a body by friction, contact and
(iii) electroscope
(iv) Coulomb’s inverse square law, electric
field and potential
(v) electric field intensity and potential
(vi) electric discharge and lightning


(ii) parallel plate capacitors
(iii) capacitance of a capacitor
(iv) the relationship between capacitance, area
separation of plates and medium between the
(v) capacitors in series and parallel
(vi) energy stored in a capacitor

Electric Cells

(i) simple voltaic cell and its defects;
(ii) Daniel cell, Leclanche cell (wet and dry)
(iii) lead –acid accumulator and Nickel-Iron
(Nife) Lithium lron and Mercury cadmium
(iv) maintenance of cells and batteries (detail
treatment of the chemistry of a cell is not
(v) arrangement of cells
(vi) Efficiency of a cell

Current Electricity

(i) electromagnetic force (emf), potential
difference (p.d.), current, internal resistance
of a cell and lost Volt
(ii) Ohm’s law
(iii) measurement of resistance
(iv) meter bridge
(v) resistance in series and in parallel and their
(vi) the potentiometer method of measuring
emf, current and internal resistance of a cell.
(v) electrical networks

Electrical Energy and Power

(i) concepts of electrical energy and power
(ii) commercial unit of electric energy and
(iii) electric power transmission
(v) heating effects of electric current.
(vi) electrical wiring of houses
(vii) use of fuse

Magnets and Magnetic Fields

(i) natural and artificial magnets
(ii) magnetic properties of soft iron and steel
(iii) methods of making magnets and
(iv) concept of magnetic field
(v) magnetic field of a permanent magnet
(vi) magnetic field round a straight current
carrying conductor, circular wire and
(vii) properties of the earth’s magnetic field;
north and south poles, magnetic meridian
and angle of dip and declination

(viii) flux and flux density
(ix) variation of magnetic field intensity over
the earth’s surface
(x) applications: earth’s magnetic field in
navigation and mineral exploration.


Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor

Magnetic Field
(i) quantitative treatment of force between
two parallel current-carrying conductors
(ii) force on a charge moving in a magnetic
(iii) the d. c. motor
(iv) electromagnets
(v) carbon microphone
(vi) moving coil and moving iron instruments
(vii) conversion of galvanometers to
ammeters and voltmeter using shunts
and multipliers
(viii) sensitivity of a galvanometer

Electromagnetic Induction

(i) Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction
(ii) factors affecting induced emf
(iii) Lenz’s law as an illustration of the
principle of conservation of energy

(iv) a.c. and d.c generators
(v) transformers
(vi) the induction coil
(b) Inductance
(i) explanation of inductance
(ii) unit of inductance
(iii) energy stored in an inductor
(iv) application/uses of inductors
(ix) Eddy Current
(i) reduction of eddy current
(ii) applications of eddy current

Simple A. C. Circuits

(ii) peak and r.m.s. values
(iii) a.c. source connected to a resistor;
(iv) a.c source connected to a capacitorcapacitive reactance
(v) a.c source connected to an inductor
inductive reactance
(vi) series R-L-C circuits
(vii) vector diagram, phase angle and power
(viii) resistance and impedance
(ix) effective voltage in an R-L-C circuits
(x) resonance and resonance frequency

Conduction of Electricity Through

(a) liquids

(i) electrolytes and non-electrolyte
(ii) concept of electrolysis
(iii) Faraday’s laws of electrolysis
(iv) application of electrolysis, e.g
electroplating, calibration of ammeter etc.
(b) gases
(i) discharge through gases (qualitative
treatment only)
(ii) application of conduction of electricity
through gases

Elementary Modern Physics

(i) models of the atom and their limitations
(ii) elementary structure of the atom;
(iii) energy levels and spectra
(iv) thermionic and photoelectric emissions;
(v) Einstein’s equation and stopping potential
(vi) applications of thermionic emissions and
photoelectric effects
(vii) simple method of production of x-rays
(viii) properties and applications of alpha, beta
and gamma rays
(xiii) half-life and decay constant
(xiv) simple ideas of production of energy by
fusion and fission
(xv) binding energy, mass defect and Einstein’s
Energy equation
[∆E = ∆Mc2

(xvi) wave-particle paradox (duality of matter)
(xvii) electron diffraction
(xviii) the uncertainty principle

Introductory Electronics

(i) distinction between metals, semiconductors
and insulators (elementary knowledge of band
gap is required)
(ii) intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors;
(iii) uses of semiconductors and diodes in
rectification and transistors in amplification
(iv) n-type and p-type semiconductors
(v) elementary knowledge of diodes and



Learning Outcomes

At the end of this course, candidates should be able to:

i. Appreciate the meaning of government;
ii. Analyze the framework and specify the institutions of government;
iii. Appreciate the basic principles of democratic governance and their application in
iv. Explain the concept of citizenship and define the duties and obligations of a citizen;
v. Appreciate the process of political development in Nigeria;
vi. Evaluate the political development and problems of governance in Nigeria;
vii. Understand the determinants and dynamics of foreign policy as it relates to Nigeria;
viii. Assess the role of Nigeria as a member of the international community and the
workings of international organizations.

Idam Chijioke Daniel

Idam Chijioke Daniel

Course Instructor

Why study 321exam  Government? Aside from passing your exams, here are the top five reasons;

1. To understand the influence government has on your daily life.

2. To understand why the government produces the policies it does.

3. To understand and interpret current events in a rapidly changing world.

4. To understand how the United States attempts to resolve conflicts and seeks to establish order and security.

5. To develop the ability to solve problems and make good decisions when current.


Ibrahim Inuwa Ribah

Ibrahim Inuwa Ribah

Assistant Course Instructor

Course Syllabus


1. Basic Concepts in Government
a. Power, Authority, Legitimacy,
b. Society, State, Nation, Nation-State;
c. Political Processes;
Political Socialization, Political
Participation, Political Culture.
2. Forms of Government:
Monarchy, Aristocracy, Oligarchy,
Autocracy, Republicanism, Democracydefinitions, features, merits and demerits.
3. Arms of Government:
a. The Legislature – types, structure,
functions, powers;
b. The Executive – types, functions,
c. The Judiciary – functions, power components.
d. Their relationships
4. Structures of Governance:
a. Unitary – features, reasons for
adoption, merits and demerits
b. Federal – features, reasons for
adoption, merits and demerits
c. Confederal – features, reasons for
adoption, merits and demerits.
5. Systems of Governance:
Presidential, Parliamentary and
6. Political Ideologies:
Communalism, Feudalism, Capitalism,
Socialism, Communism, Totalitarianism,
Fascism, Nazism.
7. Constitution:
Meaning, Sources, Functions, Types –
Written, Unwritten, Rigid and Flexible.
8. Principles of Democratic Government:
Ethics and Accountability in Public
Office, Separation of Power, Checks and
Balances, Individual and Collective
Responsibility, Constitutionalism, Rule of
Law, Representative Government.
9. Processes of Legislation:
Legislative Enactments – acts, edicts,
bye-laws, delegated legislation, decrees.
10. Citizenship:
a. Meaning, types;
b. Citizenship rights;
c. Dual citizenship, renunciation,
d. Duties and obligations of
e. Duties and obligations of the
11. The Electoral Process:
a. Suffrage – evolution, types;
b. Election – types, ingredients of free
and fair election;
c. Electoral System – types, advantages
and disadvantages of each;
d. Electoral Commission – functions,

12. Political Parties and Party Systems:
a. Political parties – Definition,
Organization, functions.
b. Party Systems – Definition,
organization, functions.
13. Pressure Groups:
a. Definition, types, functions and
modes of operation.
b. Differences between Pressure Groups
and Political Parties.
14. Public Opinion:
a. Meaning, formation and
b. Functions and limitations.
15. The Civil Service:
Definition, characteristics, functions,
structure, control and problems.


1. Pre – colonial Polities:
Pre-jihad Hausa, Emirate, Tiv, Igbo,
a. Their structural organization;
b. The functions of their various
political institutions.
2. Imperialist Penetration:
a. The British process of acquisition –
trade, missionary activities, company
rule, crown colony, protectorate;
b. The British colonial administrative
policy – direct and indirect rule;
c. The French colonial administrative
policy – assimilation and association;
d. Impact of British colonial ruleeconomic, political, socio-cultural;
e. Comparison of British and French
colonial administration.

3. Process of Decolonization:
a. Nationalism – Meaning, Types;
b. Nationalist Movements – emergence,
goals, strategies;
c. Nationalist Leaders – Herbert
Macaulay, Nnamdi Azikiwe,
Obafemi Awolowo, Ahmadu Bello,
Ladipo Solanke, Aminu Kano, J. S.
Tarka, Tafawa Balewa and others;
d. Emergence of nationalist parties;
e. Influence of external factors.
4. Constitutional Development in Nigeria:
a. Hugh Clifford Constitution (1922)
b. Arthur Richards Constitution (1946)
c. John Macpherson Constitution (1951)
d. Oliver Lyttleton Constitution (1954)
e. Independence Constitution (1960)
Their features, merits and demerits.
5. Post – Independence Constitutions:
1963, 1979, 1989 and 1999–
characteristics and shortcomings.
6. Institutions of Government in the Post
– Independence Nigeria:
a. The Legislative – structure, functions
and working.
b. The Executive – structure, functions
and workings.
c. The Judiciary – structure, functions
and workings.
7. Public Commissions Established by the
1979 and Subsequent Constitutions:
The Civil Service Commission, the Public
Complaints Commission, Electoral
Commissions, National Boundary
Commission and others – objectives
functions and problems .
8. Political Parties and Party Politics in
Post-Independence Nigeria:
a. First Republic
b. Second Republic
c. Third Republic
d. Fourth Republic
– Evolution, membership spread,
structure etc

9. The Structure and Workings of
Nigerian Federalism:
a. Rationale for a Federal System;
b. Tiers of government and their
c. Creation of States – 1963, 1967,
1976, 1987, 1991, 1996;
d. Problems of Nigerian Federalism –
census, revenue allocation, conflicts
etc. solutions e.g. Federal character,
10. Public Corporations and Parastatals:
a. Definition, types, purpose and
b. Finance, control and problems;
c. Deregulation, privatization,
commercialization – objectives,
features, merits and demerits;
d. Comparison between public
corporations and parastatals.
11. Local Government:
a. Local government administration
prior to 1976;
b. Features of local government reforms
(1976, 1989) – structure, functions,
finance and inter-governmental
c. Traditional rulers and local
d. Problems of local government
administration in Nigeria.
12. The Military in Nigerian Politics:
a. Factors that led to military
b. Structure of military regimes;
c. Impact of military rule – political, e.g
creation of states, introduction of
unitary system (Unification Decree
NO. 34) etc. economic, e.g SAP, etc.
d. Processes of military disengagement


1. Foreign Policy:
– Definition, purpose, determining
factors; formulation and
2. Nigeria’s Foreign Policy:
a. Relations with major powers;
b. Relations with developing
countries, e.g the Technical Aid
Corps (TAC), etc.
c. Nigeria’s Non-Alignment Policy.
3. Relations with African Countries:
a. Africa as the “centre piece” of
Nigeria’s forieign policy – guiding
principles, implementation and
b. NEPAD – origin, objectives and
4. Nigeria in International Organizations
a. The United Nations;
b. The Commonwealth;
c. The Organization of African Unity;
d. The African Union;
e. The Economic Community of West
African States (ECOWAS);
f. The Organization of Petroleum
Exporting Countries (OPEC).


1. International Organizations
b. OAU, AU;
c. Commonwealth;
d. OPEC;
e. UNO;
f. African Petroleum Producers
– Origin, objectives, structure, functions,
achievements, problems and prospects of
these organizations.



Learning Outcomes

At the end of this course, candidates should be able to:

1. Acquire the basic knowledge of Commerce;
2. Examine the relationship between Commerce and other related fields;
3. Apply the principles of Commerce in the Nigerian economy and
4. Appreciate dynamic and positive changes in commercial activities.

Ekoma Kingsley Omoriotimwa

Ekoma Kingsley Omoriotimwa

Course Instructor

In this course, I will use various E-learning tools to help you prepare for your exams. Commerce is a field that students who have an interest in Accounting, Economics, and other commercial studies often consider taking during JAMB. Students who are looking forward to pursuing a career in Commerce have a wide range of choices before them. I encourage you to enroll in this course

Course Syllabus


(i) Meaning and scope
(ii) Characteristics
(iii) Functions


(i) Meaning and importance
(ii) Types (industrial, commercial and
(iii) Factors that determine choice of


(i) Factors, characteristics and rewards
(land, labour, capital and entrepreneur)
(ii) Division of Labour and specialization
(iii) Types (primary, secondary and


a. Home Trade
(i) Retail trade:
– Types of retailers
– Functions of retailers
– Factors to be considered in setting
up retail trade
– Trends in retailing (branding, self –
service, vending machines, the use
of luncheon, fuel vouchers,etc)
– Advantages and disadvantages of
(ii) Wholesale trade:
– Types of wholesalers (merchant,
agent, general, etc)
– Functions of wholesalers
– Advantages and disadvantages of
b. Foreign trade
(i) Basic issues in foreign trade (balance of
trade, balance of payments and counter
(ii) Procedures and documents used in
export, import and entrepôt trade
(iii) Barriers to international trade
(iv) Role of Customs and Excise Authority,
Ports Authority, etc in foreign trade
5. Purchase and Sale of Goods
(i) Procedure and documentation
(enquiry, quotation, order, invoice,
proforma invoice, statement of
accounts, indent, consular invoice, bill
of lading, certificate of origin,
consignment note, etc)
(ii) Terms of trade (trade discount,
quantity discount, cash discount,
warranties, C.O.D., C.I.F., F.O.B., and
E.O.E. etc)
(iii) Terms of payments
a. Cash – Legal tender
b. Credit
– Types and functions
– Merits and demerits


a. Advertising:
(i) Types and media
(ii) Advantages and disadvantages
b. Banking:
(i) Types of bank
(ii) Services
(iii) Challenges
c. Communication:
(i) Process and procedure
(ii) Types
(iii) Trends
(iv) Merits and demerits
(v) Barriers
d. Insurance:
(i) Types
(ii) Principles
(iii) Terms
(iv) Importance
e. Tourism:
(i) Importance
(ii) Agencies that promote tourism in
(iii) Challenges
f. Transportation:
(i) Mode
(ii) Importance
(iii) Advantages and disadvantages
g. Warehousing:
(i) Importance
(ii) Types and functions
(iii) Factors to be considered in siting
a warehouse

Business Units

(i) Forms and features (Sole
Proprietorship, Partnership, Limited
Liability Companies, Public
Corporations, Cooperative Societies,
(ii) Registration of businesses
(iii) Business Mergers
(iv) Determination of choice of business
(v) Dissolution and liquidation
(vi) Merits and demerits

Financing Business

(i) Sources of finance (personal savings,
sale of shares and bonds, loans,
debentures, mortgage, bank overdraft,
ploughing back of profit, credit
purchase, leasing, etc.)
(ii) Types of capital (share capital, capital
owned, authorized (capital, issued
capital, called-up capital, paid-up
capital, liquid capital, working capital
and owners’ equity)
(iii) Calculation of forms of capital, profits
(gross and net) and turnover
(iv) Problems of sourcing finance
(v) The role of Bureaux de change in an

Trade Associations

(i) Objectives and functions of trade and
manufacturer’s associations (Cocoa
Farmers’ Association, Garri Sellers’
Association, Poultry Farmers’
Association, etc.)
(ii) Objectives and functions of Chambers
of Commerce.


(i) Evolution
(ii) Forms and qualities
(iii) Functions

Stock Exchange

(i) Importance and functions
(ii) Types of securities (stocks, shares,
bonds, debentures, etc)
(iii) Procedure of transactions and
(iv) Second-Tier Securities Market (listing
requirements, types of companies for
the market, advantages and operating
regulations of the market.)

Elements of Business Management

(i) Functions (planning, organizing,
staffing, coordinating, motivating,
communicating, controlling etc)
(ii) Principles (span of control, unity of
command, delegation of authority, etc)
(iii) Organizational structure (line, line and
staff, functional, matrix and
(iv) Functional areas of business
(production, marketing, finance and
(v) Business resources (man, money,
materials, machines and

Elements of Marketing

(i) Importance and Functions
(ii) The marketing concept (consumer
orientation, customer satisfaction,
integrated marketing, etc)
(iii) Marketing mix (product, price, place
and promotion)
(iv) Market Segmentation
(v) Public relations and Customer Service

Legal Aspects of Business

(i) Meaning and validity of a simple
(ii) Agency, Sale of Goods Act and Hire
Purchase Act
(iii) Contract of employment
(iv) Government regulations of business
(registration of business, patents,
trademarks, copyrights, etc) 

(v) Consumer protection (Government
legislation, Standards Organization
Trade Descriptions Act, Consumer
Protection Council, NAFDAC,
NDLEA, Customs and Excise, etc.)
(vi) Regulatory agencies.

Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

a. Computer:
(i) Appreciation and application
(ii) Types and functions
(iii) Merits and demerits
(iv) Challenges
b. Terms (Internet, Intranet, browsing,
password, e-mail, google, yahoo, search,
Local Area Network, etc.)
c. Activities:
(i) e-commerce
(ii) e-banking
(iii) e-business

Business Environment and Social Responsibility

(i) Legal, political, economic, social,
cultural, technological environments,
(ii) Safe products, philanthropic and
societal consideration
(iii) Types and implication of pollution
(water, air, land, etc.)


Christian Religious Studies

Learning Outcomes

At the end of this course, candidates should be able to:

  1. acquire the knowledge and understanding of the tenets of the Christian faith as contained in the Bible.
  2. Interpret Biblical teachings and themes.
  3. Apply Biblical teachings and tenets to life in society.
    Idam Chijioke Daniel

    Idam Chijioke Daniel

    Course Instructor

    The benefits of enrolling in 321exam Christian Religious Studies online course;

    1. It equips the learner with an understanding of God/spiritual growth.
    2. The learner acquires life skills to handle challenges in life.
    3. It helps one to respect his or her own/other people’s religious beliefs and culture.
    4. It helps one to acquire basic principles for Christian living / moral values.
    5. It enables one to understand how to relate with other people.
    6. It gives answers to questions/mysteries of life.
    7. It explains the original purpose of human beings on earth.
    8. It equips you to pass your CRS exam
    Ekoma Kingsley Omoriotimoa

    Ekoma Kingsley Omoriotimoa

    Assistant Course Instructor

    Course Syllabus


    Themes from Creation to the Division of the
    1. The Sovereignty of God
    God as Creator and Controller of the Universe
    (Gen. 1 and 2) cf. Amos 9:5-6; Is. 45:5-12
    2. The Covenant
    (a) The flood and God’s covenant with Noah
    (Gen. 6:1-22; 7:1-24; 9:1-17)
    (b) God’s covenant with Abraham (Gen.
    11:31-32; 12:1-9; 17:1-21; 21:1-13;
    (c) God’s covenant with Israel (Ex. 19; 20 ) The New Covenant (Jer. 31:31-34; Ezek
    3. Leadership Qualities:
    Examples of
    (a) Joseph (Gen. 37:1-28; 41:1-57; 45:1-15)
    (b) Moses (Ex. 1; 2; 3; 4:1-17; 5; 12; Num.
    13:1-20; 14:1-19)
    (c) Joshua (Num. 13:21-33; 27:15-23; Josh.
    1:1-15; 6; 7; 24:1-31)
    (d) Judges (Deborah-Jug. 4:1-24; GideonJudge 6:11-40; Samson-Judge 13:1-7, 21-
    25; 16:4-31)
    4. Devine Providence
    (a) Guidance and Protection (Gen. 24:1-61;
    28:10-22; 46:1-7: Ex. 13:17-22; 14:1-4;
    (b) Provision (Gen. 21:14-18; 22:1-14; Ex.
    16:1-21; 17:1-7; Num. 20:1-13; 1 Kings
    5. Parental Responsibility:
    Examples of
    (a) Eli and Samuel (1 Sam. 2:11-36; 3:2-18;
    4:10-22: 8:15)
    (b) David and his sons (11 Sam. 13; 15:1-29;
    18; 19:1-8)
    (c) Asa and Jehoshaphat (1 Kings 15:9-15;
    22:41-44; cf. Deut. 6:4-9; Prov. 4:1-10;
    13:1; 24; 22:6; 23:13-14; 31:10-31)
    6. i) Obedience and Rewards
    Examples of
    (a) Abraham (Gen. 22:1-19)
    (b) Hebrew Midwives (Ex. 1:8-22)
    (c) David (1 Sam. 30:1-20)
    ii) Disobedience and Consequences
    Examples of
    (a) Adam (Gen. 2:15-25; 3)
    (b) Collection of Manna (Ex. 16:22-30)
    (c) The Golden Calf (Ex. 32)
    (d) Moses (Num. 20:7-12; Deut. 34:1-6)
    (e) Saul (1 Sam. 10:1-16; 15:1-25; 16:14-23;
    7. A man after God’s own heart
    (a) The early life of David (1 Sam. 16:1-13;
    17; 18:17-30; 22:1-5; 24:1-23; II Sam.
    2:1-7; 3:1-39)
    (b) David’s submission to the will of God
    (I Sam. 26:1-25); II Sam 12:15-25 

    (c) Repentance and forgiveness (II Sam. 11;
    12:1-15, cf. Ps. 51:130)
    8. Decision – Making
    (a) Reliance on medium (I Sam. 28:3-25)
    (b) The Wisdom of Solomon (I Kings 3:3-28;
    4:29-34; 5:1-12; 8:1-53)
    (c) Unwise Policies of Solomon and
    Rehoboam (I Kings 9:15-23; 11:1-40;


    Themes from the Division of the Kingdom to the
    Return from Exile and the Prophets
    1. Greed and its Effects
    Example of
    (a) Ahab (I Kings 21:1-29; 22:1-40; II Kings
    (b) Gehazi (II Kings 5:1-27 cf (Josh 7)
    2. The Supremacy of God
    Religious Tension and the Power of God on
    Mount Carmel (I Kings 16:29-34; 17:1-7; 18;
    3. Religious Reforms in Judah
    (a) Cleansing of the Temple (II Kings 22)
    (b) Renewal of the Covenant (II Kings 23:1-
    4. Concern for Judah
    (a) The fall of Jerusalem (II kings 24; 25:1-
    (b) Condition of Judah (Neh. 1:1-11; Ezra
    (c) Response to the state of Judah (Neh. 2;
    4:1-23 Ezra 3:4; 5; 6; 7)
    5. Faith in God
    Faith, Courage and Protection (Dan. 1; 3:1-

    6. God’s Message to Nineveh
    Jonah and his massage (Jonah 1; 2; 3 and 4)
    7. Social, Justice, True Religion and Divine Love
    (a) Social justice and true religion (Amos
    2:6-8; 4; 5:1-25; 6:1-14; 7:10-17; 8:4-14)
    (b) Divine Love and human reponse (Hosea
    1; 2; 3; 4; 6:1-11; 14)
    8. Holiness and Divine Call
    (Isaiah 6:1-13; Ezek. 2; 3:1-11; Jer. 1:4-10)
    9. Punishment and Hope
    (Jer. 3:11-18; 32:26-35; Ezek. 18; 37:1-14;
    Isaiah 61)


    Themes from the four Gospels and the Acts of the
    1. The Birth and early Life of Jesus
    (a) John, the forerunner of Jesus (Lk. 1:5-25;
    57-66; 3:1-20; 7:18-35; Mk. 1:1-8; 6:14-
    29; Mt. 3:1-12; Jn. 1:6-8; 19-37)
    (b) The brith and boyhood of Jesus (Mt. 1:18-
    25; 2; Lk. 1:26-45:2)
    2. The Baptism and Temptation of Jesus
    (Mt. 3:13-17; 4:1-11; Mk. 1:9-13; Lk. 3:21-22;
    3. Discipleship
    (a) The call of the first disciples (Mt. 4:18 22;
    9:9-13; Mk. 1:16-20; 2:13-17; Lk. 5:1-11;
    (b) The cost of discipleship (Mt. 8:19-22; Lk.
    9:57-63; 14:25-33)

    4. Miracles
    (a) Nature Miracles
    (i) Stilling the storm (Mt. 8:23-27; Mk.
    4:35-41; Lk.8:22-25)
    (ii) Feeding of the Five Thousand (Mt.
    4:13-24; Mk. 6:30-44; Lk, 9:10-17;
    Jn. 6:1-13)
    (iii) Walking on the sea (Mt. 4:22-26;
    Mk. 6:45-52; Jn. 6:16-21)
    (iv) Changing water to wine (Jn. 2:1-11)
    (b) Miracles of Resuscitation
    (i) The raising of Lazarus (Jn. 11:1-45)
    (ii) The raising of Jairu’s daughter (Lk.
    8:41-42, 49-56; Mk. 5:21-43)
    (iii) The raising of the widow’s son at
    Nain (Lk. 7:11-17)
    (c) Healing Miracles
    (i) The leper (Mt. 8:1-4; Mk. 1:40-45;
    Lk. 5:12-16; 17:11-19)
    (ii) The paralytic at the pool (Jn. 5:1-17)
    (iii) The centurion’s servant (Mt. 8:5-13;
    Lk. 7:1-10)
    (iv) The blind (Jn. 9:1-12; Mk. 10:46-52;
    Lk. 18:35-43)
    (d) Exorcism
    (i) The Gerasenes (Gadarenes) demoniac
    (Mt. 8:28-34; Mk. 5:1-20; Lk. 8:21-
    (ii) The epileptic boy (Mk. 9:14-29; Lk.
    9:37-43a; Mt. 17:14-21)
    5. The Parables
    (a) Parables of the Kingdom
    (i) The sower (Mt. 13:1-23; Mk. 4:1-20)
    (ii) The weeds (Mt. 13:24-30; 36-43)
    (b) Parables about love of God (Mt. 18:12-
    14; Lk. 15:1-32)
    (c) Parables about love for one another
    (Lk.10:25-37; 16:19-31)
    (d) Parable about wealth: The rich fool (Lk.
    6. Sermon on the Mount
    (Mt. 5; 6:1-18; Lk. 6:17-26; Mt. 6:19-34)
    7. Mission of the Disciples
    (a)The mission of the twelve
    (Mt. 10:5-15; Mk. 6:7-13; Lk. 9:1-16)

    (b)The mission of the seventy (Lk. 10:1-24)
    8. The Great Confession
    (Mt. 16:13-20; Mk. 8:27-30; Lk. 9:18-22)
    9. The Transfiguration
    (Mt. 17:1-13; Mk. 9:2-13; Lk. 9:28-36)
    10. The Triumphal Entry and the
    cleansing of the Temple
    (Mt. 21:1-17; Mk. 11:1-19; Lk. 19:29-48)
    11. The Last Supper
    (Mt. 26:17-30; Mk. 14:10-26
    Lk. 22:7-23; Jn. 13:2-38)
    12. The Trials and the Death of Jesus
    (a) The Trials of Jesus
    (i) Before the High Priest
    (Mt. 26:36-75;
    Mk. 14:53-72
    Lk. 22:66-71)
    (ii) Before Pilate
    (Mt. 27:11-26; Mk. 15:1-15;
    Lk. 23:1-5; 13-25;
    Jn. 18:28-40; 19:1-16)
    (iii) Before Herod
    (Lk. 23:6-12)
    (b) Crucifixion and Burial of Jesus
    (Mt. 27:32-66; Lk. 23:26-56;
    Mk. 15:16-47; Jn. 19:17-42)
    13. Resurrection, Appearances
    and Ascension of Jesus
    (Mt. 28:1-20; Mk. 16:1-20;
    Lk. 24:1-53; Jn. 20:1-31;
    Acts 1:1-11) 

    14. Jesus’ Teachings about
    (a) The Bread of Life and the
    Living Water (Jn. 4:7-15;
    (b) The Light of the World
    (Jn. 1:4-8; 3:19-21; 8:12
    9:1-5; 12:35-36)
    (a) The Door and the Good
    Shepherd (Jn. 10:1-18)
    (b) The True Vine (Jn. 15:1-11)
    15. Love
    (a) God’s love for man
    (Jn. 3:16-18)
    (b) Love for one another
    (Jn. 13:34-35; 15:12-13
    cf. I Jn. 4:7-21)
    16. Fellowship in the Early Church
    (a) Communal living
    (Acts 1:15-26; 2:41-47;
    (b) Problems of communal
    living and solutions
    (Acts 5:1-11, 6:1-6)
    17. The Holy Spirit and the Mission
    of the Church
    (a) The Pentecost (Acts 1:8;
    (b) The Mission of the Church
    (Acts 8:4-40)
    18. Opposition to the Gospel Message
    (a) The arrest and imprisonment of
    Peter and John
    (Acts 3; 4:1-22; 5:17-42
    (b) The martyrdom of Stephen
    (Acts 6:8-15; 7)
    (c) Persecution by Saul
    (Acts 8:1-3; 9:1-2)
    cf. Gal. 1:11-17
    19. Mission to the Gentiles
    (a) Conversion of Saul (Acts 9:1-30; 22:4-21;
    (b) Conversion of Cornelius
    (Acts 10:1-48)
    (c) The commissioning and mission of Paul
    (Acts 13; 14:1-20);
    (d) The Council of Jerusalem
    (Acts 15:1-35; Gal. 2:1-21)
    (e) Persecution of Paul
    (Acts 16:11-40; 19:23-41
    cf. II Cor. 11:23-33


    Themes from Selected Epistles
    1. Justification by Faith
    (Rom. 3:21-24; 5:1-11; 10:1-13)
    2. The Law and Grace
    (Rom. 4:13-25; 5:18-21;
    Gal. 3:10-14; 19-29)
    3. New Life in Christ
    (Rom. 6:1-4; 12-14; Col. 3:1-17;
    Gals. 5:16-26; II Cor. 5:16-19;
    I Thess. 4:1-8; Rom. 12)

    4. Christians as Joint Heirs with Christ
    (Gal. 3:23-29; 4:1-7)
    5. Humility
    (Phil. 2:1-11; I Pet. 5:5-11)
    6. Forgiveness
    (Philemon; II Cor. 2:5-11)

    7. Spiritual Gifts
    (I Cor. 12; Rom. 12:3-18; I Cor. 14)
    8. Christian Giving
    (Phil. 4:14-20; II Cor. 8:1-5; 9)
    9. Civic Responsibility
    (Rom. 13; I Tim. 2:1-4)
    10. Dignity of Labour
    (II Thess. 3:6-15; Col. 3:23-35)
    11. The Second Coming of Christ
    (a) The signs of the Coming of Christ (I
    4:13-18; II Thess. 2:1-12)
    (b) Preparation for His coming
    (I Thess. 5:1-11; II Pet. 3:1-13)
    12. Impartiality
    (James 2:1-13)
    cf. Acts 10:34-35
    13. Effective Prayer
    (James 1:2-8; 4:1-3; 5:13-18)
    14. Christian Living in the
    (a)Interpersonal relationship
    among Christians (I Pet. 5:1-4;
    Rom. 12:3-21)
    (b)Christians living among non-
    Christians (I Pet. 2:3-25; Rom. 15:1-2)
    (c)Christian attitude to persecution
    (I Pet. 1:5-9; 4:1-19)
    (d)Relationship in the Christian
    Family (Eph. 6: 1-9; Col. 3:18-21;
    I Pet. 3:1-7)


    Islamic Religious Studies 

    Learning Outcomes

    At the end of this course, candidates should be able to:

    1. master the Qur’an and Sunnah as foundations of Islamic and social life;
    2. be familiar with Islamic heritage, culture, and civilization;
    3. be acquainted with the tradition of Islamic scholarship and intellectual discourse;
    4. demonstrate knowledge of Islamic moral, spiritual, political, and social values;
    5. be prepared to face the challenges of life as good practicing Muslims

    Ishaq Muhammed Jamiu

    Ishaq Muhammed Jamiu

    Course Instructor

    This course is not designed for Muslims alone and here is why; First, taking the time to know some of the basics about your Muslim neighbour’s faith allows you to ask informed questions that provoke deep conversations. As you familiarise yourself with what your Muslim neighbour holds most dear, you convey that you care about them. Next, your understanding of Islamic theology and the traditional accounts of historical development will shape your knowledge of the fundamental differences between Islam and Christianity and more. You should also enroll in this course to pass your IRS Examination.

    Course Syllabus


    1. Revelation of the Glorious Qur’an
    (i) Visits of the Prophet (SAW) to Cave
    (ii) His reaction to the first revelation
    and its importance
    (iii) Different modes of revelation
    (Q.42:51): the inspiration behind the veil, through an angel, etc.
    (iv) Piecemeal revelation (Q.17:106)
    1b. Preservation of the Glorious Qur’an
    (i) Complete arrangement
    (ii) Differences between Makkah and
    Madinan suwar
    (iii) Recording, compilation and standardization of the Glorious
    (iv) The role played by the
    Companions of the Prophet (SAW)
    1c. Importance of the Glorious Qur’an
    as a source of guidance in spiritual,
    moral, economic, political and
    socio-cultural matters.
    1d. Proof of the Divine authenticity of the
    Glorious Qur’an (Q.4:82) (Q.41:42)
    (i) Uniqueness of the Glorious
    Qur’an (Q.39:27) (Q.17:88)
    (ii) Divine preservation of the Glorious Qur’an
    2. Tafsir
    (i) Historical development of Tafsir
    (ii) Importance of Tafsir
    (iii) Types of Tafsir
    3. Introduction to Tajwid (Theory and
    4. Study of the Arabic text of the following
    suwar/ayats with tajwid
    (a) al-Fatihah (Q.1)
    (b) al -Adiyat (Q.100)
    (c) al -Qari’ah (Q.101)
    (d) at -Takathur (Q.102)
    (e) al -Asr ((Q.103)
    (f) al -Humazah (Q.104)
    (g) al -Maun ((Q.107
    (h) al -Kawthar (Q.108)
    (i) al – Kafirun (Q. 109)
    (j) al- Nasr (Q. 110)
    (k) al -Masad ((Q.111)
    (l) al -Ikhlas (Q.112)
    (m) al -Falaq ((Q.113)
    (n) an-Nas (Q.114 5. Study of the Arabic text of the following
    suwar/ayats with tajwid
    (a) al-A’ala (Q.87)
    (b) ad-Duha (Q.93)
    (c) al-Inshirah (Q.94)
    (d) at-Tin (Q.95)
    (e) al-Alaq (Q.96)
    (f) al-Qadr (Q.97)
    (g) al-Bayyinah (Q.98)
    (h) al-Zilzal (Q.99)
    (i) Ayatul-Kursiy (Q.2:255)
    (j) Amanar-Rasul (Q.2:285-6)
    (k) Laqad jaakun (Q.9:128-129)
    6. Hadith
    (a) History of Hadith literature –
    Collection of Hadith from the time of
    the Prophet(SAW) to the period of the
    six authentic collectors of Hadith
    (b) Authentication of Hadith
    (i) Isnad (Asma’ur-rijal)
    (ii) Matn
    (iii) Classification of Hadith into Sahih
    Hassan and Da’if
    (c) The relationship between Hadith and the
    Glorious Qur’an
    (i) The importance of Hadith
    (ii) The similarities and differences
    between Hadith and the Glorious
    Qur’an (d) The six sound collectors of Hadith –
    biographies and their works.
    (e) Muwatta and its author – The
    biography of Imam Malik and the
    study of his book
    (f) The study of the Arabic texts of the
    following ahadith from an-Nawawi’s
    collection: 1,3,5,6,7,9,10,11,12,13,15,16,
    18,19,21, 22,25,27,34, and 41
    7. Moral lessons in the Glorious Qur’an and
    (a) General moral lessons contained in the admonition of Sage Luqman to his son
    (b) Goodness to parents (Q.17:23-24)
    (c) Honesty (Q.2:42)(Q.61:2-3)
    (d) Prohibition of bribery and corruption
    (Q:2:188), alcohol and gambling
    (Q.2:219) (Q.5:93-94), stealing and
    fraud (Q.5:41) (83:1-5), smoking, drug
    abuse and other intoxicants (Q.2:172-
    173, 195 and 219) (Q.4:43) (Q.5:3)
    (Q.6:118-121) arrogance (Q.31:18-19)
    and extravagance (Q.17:26-27)
    (e) Dignity of labour (Q.62:10) (Q.78:11)
    Hadith from Bukhari and Ibn Majah:
    “that one of you takes his rope…….”
    “never has anyone of you eaten……”.
    (f) Behaviour and modesty in dressing
    (Q.24:27-31) (Q.33:59)
    (g) Adultery and fornication (Q.17:32)
    (Q.24:2), homosexuality (Q.11:77-78)
    and obscenity (Q:4:14-15) Hadith – “No one of you should meet a woman
    privately …… “Bukhari
    (h) Leadership (Q.2:124) and justice (Q.4:58
    and 135) (Q.5:9) Hadith – ‘take care
    every one of you is a governor …..
    concerning his subjects” (al-Bukhari and
    (i) Trust and obligations (Q:4:58) (Q.5:1)
    and promises (Q.16:91) Hadith ‘he has
    (really) no faith …. Not fulfilled his
    promise” (Baihaqi)
    (j) Piety (Taqwa) (Q:2:177) (Q.3:102)
    (Q.49:13) Hadith 18 and 35 of an
    (k) Tolerance, perseverance and patience
    (Q.2:153-157) (Q.3:200) (Q.103:3)
    Hadith 16 of an-Nawawi
    (l) Unity and brotherhood (Q.3:103)
    (Q.8:46) (Q.49:10) Hadith 35 of anNawawi
    (m) Enjoining what is good and forbidding
    what is wrong (Q.3:104 and 110)
    (Q.16:90) Hadith 25 and 34 of an


    (a) Faith
    (i) Tawhid
    Its importance and lessons
    (b) Kalimatush-Shahadah
    (i) Its meaning and importance
    (ii) The Oneness of Allah as contained in the
    following verses: (Q.3:19) Q.2:255)
    (Q.112:1-4) (iii) The servanthood and messengership of
    the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) as
    contained in the following verses
    (Q.3:144) (Q.18:110) (Q.48:29) and
    (iv) Universality of his message (Q.7:158)
    (v) Finality of his Prophethood (Q.33:40)
    (c) Shirk
    (i) Beliefs which are incompatible with
    the Islamic principles of Tawhid:
    – Worship of Idols (Q.4:48)
    – Ancestral worship (Q.4:48
    and 116) (Q.21:66-67)
    – Trinity (Q.4:171) (Q.5:76)
    – Atheism (Q.45:24) (Q.72:6)
    (d) General practices which are
    incompatible with Islamic principles of
    – Superstition (Q.25:43) (Q.72:6)
    – Fortune-telling (Q.15:16-18)
    – Magic and witchcraft
    (Q.2:102) (Q.20:69) and 73)
    – Cult worship (Q.17:23)
    – Innovation (Bid’ah) (Q.4:116)
    and Hadith 5 and 28 of an-
    Nawawi 9. Article of faith
    (a) Belief in Allah
    (i) Existence of Allah (Q.2:255)
    (ii) Attributes of Allah (Q.59:22-24)
    (iii) The works of Allah (Q.27:59:64)
    (b) Belief in Allah’s angels (Q.2:177 and 285)
    (Q.8:50) (Q.16:2)
    (c) His books (Q.2:253) and 285) (Q.3:3)
    (d) His Prophets: Ulul-azmi (Q.4:163-164)
    (e) The Last Day: Yawm-al-Ba’th
    (Q.23:15-16) (Q.70:4)
    (f) Destiny: distinction between Qada and
    Qadar (Q.2:117) (Q.16:40) (Q.36:82)
    10. Ibadat and their types
    (a) Good deeds (Q.3:134) (Q.6:160) (Q.2:177)
    (Q.31:8) (Q.103:1-3) 26th Hadith of
    (b) Taharah, its types and importance (alistinja’/istijmar, alwudu’, at-tayammum and
    al-ghusl (Q.2:222) (Q.5:7) Hadith 10 and
    23 of an-Nawawi.
    (c) Salah
    (i) Importance: (Q.2:45) (Q.20:132)
    (Q.29:45) and Hadith 23rd of
    (ii) Description and types of salah
    (iii) Things that vitiate salah
    (d) Zakah
    (i) Its types and importance (zakatul-fitr,
    zakatul mal, al-an-am and al-harth
    (Q.2:267) (Q.9:103) 3rd Hadith of  an-Nawawi
    (ii) Collection and disbursement (Q.9:60)
    (iii) Difference between Zakah and
    (e) Sawm
    (i) Its types and importance (fard, sunnah,
    qada and kaffarah) (Q.2:183-185) 3rd
    Hadith of an-Nawawi
    (ii) People exempted from sawm
    (iii) Things that vitiate sawm
    (f) Hajj
    (i) Its importance (Q.2:158 and 197)
    (Q.3:97) (Q.22:27-28)
    (ii) Type (Ifrad, Qiran and Tamattu)
    (iii) Essentials of Hajj (Arkan al Hajj)
    (v) Conditions for the performance of
    (iv) Differences between Hajj and Umrah
    (g) Jihad: Concept, kinds, manner and
    Lessons (Q.2:190-193) (Q.22:39-40)
    11. Family Matters
    (a) Marriage
    (i) Importance (Q.16:72) (Q.24:32)
    (ii) Prohibited categories (Q.2:221)
    (iii) Conditions for its validity (Q.4:4)
    (iv) Rights and duties of husbands and
    wives (Q.4:34-35) (Q.20:132)
    (v) Polygamy (Q.4:3 and 129)
    (b) Idrar ill-treatment of wife (Q. 65:1-3) (c) Divorce
    (i) Attitude of Islamic to divorce (Q.2:228)
    (Q.4:34-35) Hadith “of al things
    lawful … most hateful to Allah..”
    (Abu Daud 15:3)
    (ii) Kinds (Talaq, Khul;, Faskh, Mubara’ah
    and Lian) (Q.2:229-230) (Q.24:6-9)
    (iii) Iddah, kinds, duration and importance
    (Q.2:228 and 234)
    (iv) Prohibited forms of dissolution of
    marriage. (Ila and Zihar) (Q.2:226-
    227) (Q.58:2-4)
    (v) Custody of children (Hadanah) (d) Inheritance
    (i) Its importance
    (ii) Heirs and their shares (Q.4:7-8, 11-12
    and 176)
    12. Sources and Schools of Law
    (i) The four major sources (the Qur’an,
    Sunnah, Ijma and Qiyas)
    (ii) The four Sunni Schools of law
    13. Islamic Economic System
    (i) Islamic attitude to Riba (Q.2:275-
    280) (Q.3:130) (Q.4:161) Hadith 6
    of an-Nawawi
    (ii) At-tatfif (Q.83:1-6) (iii) Hoarding (ihtikar) (Q.9:34)
    (iv) Islamic sources of revenue: Zakah,
    Jizyah, Kharaj and Ghanimah
    (v) Baitul-mal as an institution of socioeconomic welfare
    (vi) Difference between the Islamic
    the economic system and the Western
    economic system
    14. Islamic Political System
    (i) Allah as the Sovereign (Q.3:26-27)
    (ii) The concept of Shurah (consultation)
    (Q.3:159( (Q.42:38)
    (iii) The concept of Adalah (justice)
    (Q.5.9) (Q.17:13-14 and 36) and
    Mas’uliyah (accountability) (Q.4:58)
    (iv) The rights of non-Muslims in an
    Islamic state (Q.2:256) (Q.6:108)
    (v) Differences between the Islamic
    political system and the Western
    political system.


    15. Pre-Islamic Arabia (Jahiliyyah)
    (i) Jahiliyyah practices: idol worship,
    infancticide, polyandry, gambling,
    usury, etc.
    (ii) Islamic reforms
    16. The Life of Prophet Muhammad (SAW)
    (i) His birth and early life
    (ii) His call to Prophethood
    (iii) Da’wah in Makkah and Madinah (iv) The Hjrah
    (v) Administration of the Ummah and the
    role of the mosque (Q.3:159) (Q.4:58
    and 135)
    (vi) The Battles of Badr, Uhud and
    Khandaq: causes and effects
    (vii) The Treaty of al-Hudaibiyyah and the
    conquest of Makkah
    (viii) Hijjatul-wada (the farewell
    pilgrimage) sermon, and lessons.
    (ix) Qualities of Muhammad (SAW) and
    lessons learnt from them
    17. The Rightly Guided Caliphs (al-Khulafa’u
    rashidun) – the lives and contributions of the four
    Rightly Guided Caliph 18. Early contact of Islam with Africa
    (i) Hijrah to Abyssinia
    (ii) The spread of Islam to Egypt
    (ii) The role of traders, teachers,
    preachers, Murabitun, Sufi orders
    and Mujaddidun to the spread of
    Islam in West Africa.
    19. The Impact of Islam in West Africa
    (i) The influence of Islam on the sociopolitical life of some West African
    Empires: Ghana, Mali, Songhai and
    Borno (ii) The impact of Islam on the economic
    life of some West African states:
    Timbuktu, Kano and Borno
    20. Contributions of Islam to Education
    (i) The aims and objectives of Islamic
    (ii) The Glorious Qur’an and Hadith on
    Education (Q.96:1-5) (Q.39:9)
    (i) “The search for knowledge is obligatory
    on every Muslim” (Ibn Majah)
    (ii) “Seek knowledge from the cradle to
    the grave”
    (iii) “The words of wisdom are a lost
    property of the believer … a better
    right to it…. “ (Tirmidhi)
    (iv) Intellectual activities of Islam in
    West Africa (development of written
    history in Arabic and the
    establishment of Sankore University)
    (v) Intellectual activities of Ahmad Baba
    of Timbuktu, Sheikh al-Maghili,
    sheikh Usman Danfodio, Sultan
    Muhammad Bello and Ibn Battuta
    (vi) Islamic Education Institutions: House
    of Wisdom in Baghdad, al-Azhar
    University in Cairo and Nizamiyyah
    University in Baghdad.
    (vii) The lives and contributions of Ibn
    Sina, Al-Ghazali, IBn Rushdi, arRazio and ibn Khaldun to education


    Literature in English

    Learning Outcomes

    At the end of this course, candidates should be able to:

     stimulate and sustain their interest in Literature in English;
     create an awareness of the general principles of Literature and functions of language;
     appreciate literary works of all genres and across all cultures;
     apply the knowledge of Literature in English to the analysis of social, political and
    economic events in the society.

    Kayode komolefe

    Kayode komolefe

    Course Instructor

    1. In this course, we will teach you how to understand exam questions, so you’re able to give the right answers. No matter how good an answer is, it must be able to address the requirements of the question asked. Examiners like JAMB love to ask questions with similar answer options, as a way of keeping standards in line. We will teach you how to deal with this and we will also be in the Course Forum to answer any more questions you may have.
    Nwite Jacob Obinna

    Nwite Jacob Obinna

    Assistant Course Instructor

    Course Syllabus


    a. Types:
    i. Tragedy
    ii. Comedy
    iii. Tragicomedy
    iv. Melodrama
    v. Farce
    vi. Opera etc.
    b. Dramatic Techniques
    i. Characterisation
    ii. Dialogue
    iii. Flashback
    iv. Mime
    v. Costume
    vi. Music/Dance
    vii. Décor/scenery
    viii. Acts/Scenes
    ix. Soliloquy/aside
    x. Lighting etc.
    c. Interpretation of the Prescribed
    i. Theme
    ii. Plot
    iii. Socio-political context
    iv. Setting


    a. Types:
    i. Fiction
     Novel
     Novella/Novelette
     Short story
    ii. Non-fiction
     Biography
     Autobiography
     Memoir
    iii. Faction: combination of fact and
    b. Narrative Techniques/Devices:
    i. Point of view
     Omniscent/Third Person
     First Person
    ii. Characterisation
     Round, flat, foil, hero,
    antihero, etc
    iii. Language
    c. Textual Analysis
    i. Theme
    ii. Plot
    iii. Setting (Temporal/Spatial)
    iv. Socio-political context


    a. Types:
    i. Sonnet
    ii. Ode
    iii. Lyrics
    iv. Elegy
    v. Ballad
    vi. Panegyric
    vii. Epic
    viii. Blank Verse, etc.

    b. Poetic devices
    i. Structure
    ii. Imagery
    iii. Sound(Rhyme/Rhythm,
    repetition, pun, onomatopoeia,
    iv. Diction
    v. Persona
    c. Appreciation
    i. Thematic preoccupation
    ii. Socio-political relevance
    iii. Style.


    a. Literary terms:
    foreshadowing, suspense, theatre,
    monologue, dialogue, soliloquy,
    symbolism, protagonist, antagonist,
    figures of speech, satire, stream of
    consciousness, synecdoche,
    metonymy, etc,
    in addition to those listed above under
    the different genres.
    b. Literary principles
    i. Direct imitation in play;
    ii. Versification in drama and
    iii. Narration of people’s
    iv. Achievement of aesthetic value,
    c. Relationship between literary terms
    and principles.


    Unseen passages/extracts from Drama,
    Prose and Poetry

    A world-class education 

    for anyone, anywhere.

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