Course Content

The Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus

Was used to design our courses. Our course contents are also relevant for other exams, such as the National Examination Council (NECO) exams, the West African Examination Council (WEAC) exams, and the General Certificate of Education (GCE) exams.


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Learning Outcomes

At the end of this course, candidates should be able to:

i. Appreciate the meaning of government;
ii. Analyze the framework and specify the institutions of government;
iii. Appreciate the basic principles of democratic governance and their application in
iv. Explain the concept of citizenship and define the duties and obligations of a citizen;
v. Appreciate the process of political development in Nigeria;
vi. Evaluate the political development and problems of governance in Nigeria;
vii. Understand the determinants and dynamics of foreign policy as it relates to Nigeria;
viii. Assess the role of Nigeria as a member of the international community and the
workings of international organizations.

Idam Chijioke Daniel

Idam Chijioke Daniel

Course Instructor

Why study 321exam  Government? Aside from passing your exams, here are the top five reasons;

1. To understand the influence government has on your daily life.

2. To understand why the government produces the policies it does.

3. To understand and interpret current events in a rapidly changing world.

4. To understand how the United States attempts to resolve conflicts and seeks to establish order and security.

5. To develop the ability to solve problems and make good decisions when current.


Ibrahim Inuwa Ribah

Ibrahim Inuwa Ribah

Assistant Course Instructor

Course Syllabus


1. Basic Concepts in Government
a. Power, Authority, Legitimacy,
b. Society, State, Nation, Nation-State;
c. Political Processes;
Political Socialization, Political
Participation, Political Culture.
2. Forms of Government:
Monarchy, Aristocracy, Oligarchy,
Autocracy, Republicanism, Democracydefinitions, features, merits and demerits.
3. Arms of Government:
a. The Legislature – types, structure,
functions, powers;
b. The Executive – types, functions,
c. The Judiciary – functions, power components.
d. Their relationships
4. Structures of Governance:
a. Unitary – features, reasons for
adoption, merits and demerits
b. Federal – features, reasons for
adoption, merits and demerits
c. Confederal – features, reasons for
adoption, merits and demerits.
5. Systems of Governance:
Presidential, Parliamentary and
6. Political Ideologies:
Communalism, Feudalism, Capitalism,
Socialism, Communism, Totalitarianism,
Fascism, Nazism.
7. Constitution:
Meaning, Sources, Functions, Types –
Written, Unwritten, Rigid and Flexible.
8. Principles of Democratic Government:
Ethics and Accountability in Public
Office, Separation of Power, Checks and
Balances, Individual and Collective
Responsibility, Constitutionalism, Rule of
Law, Representative Government.
9. Processes of Legislation:
Legislative Enactments – acts, edicts,
bye-laws, delegated legislation, decrees.
10. Citizenship:
a. Meaning, types;
b. Citizenship rights;
c. Dual citizenship, renunciation,
d. Duties and obligations of
e. Duties and obligations of the
11. The Electoral Process:
a. Suffrage – evolution, types;
b. Election – types, ingredients of free
and fair election;
c. Electoral System – types, advantages
and disadvantages of each;
d. Electoral Commission – functions,

12. Political Parties and Party Systems:
a. Political parties – Definition,
Organization, functions.
b. Party Systems – Definition,
organization, functions.
13. Pressure Groups:
a. Definition, types, functions and
modes of operation.
b. Differences between Pressure Groups
and Political Parties.
14. Public Opinion:
a. Meaning, formation and
b. Functions and limitations.
15. The Civil Service:
Definition, characteristics, functions,
structure, control and problems.


1. Pre – colonial Polities:
Pre-jihad Hausa, Emirate, Tiv, Igbo,
a. Their structural organization;
b. The functions of their various
political institutions.
2. Imperialist Penetration:
a. The British process of acquisition –
trade, missionary activities, company
rule, crown colony, protectorate;
b. The British colonial administrative
policy – direct and indirect rule;
c. The French colonial administrative
policy – assimilation and association;
d. Impact of British colonial ruleeconomic, political, socio-cultural;
e. Comparison of British and French
colonial administration.

3. Process of Decolonization:
a. Nationalism – Meaning, Types;
b. Nationalist Movements – emergence,
goals, strategies;
c. Nationalist Leaders – Herbert
Macaulay, Nnamdi Azikiwe,
Obafemi Awolowo, Ahmadu Bello,
Ladipo Solanke, Aminu Kano, J. S.
Tarka, Tafawa Balewa and others;
d. Emergence of nationalist parties;
e. Influence of external factors.
4. Constitutional Development in Nigeria:
a. Hugh Clifford Constitution (1922)
b. Arthur Richards Constitution (1946)
c. John Macpherson Constitution (1951)
d. Oliver Lyttleton Constitution (1954)
e. Independence Constitution (1960)
Their features, merits and demerits.
5. Post – Independence Constitutions:
1963, 1979, 1989 and 1999–
characteristics and shortcomings.
6. Institutions of Government in the Post
– Independence Nigeria:
a. The Legislative – structure, functions
and working.
b. The Executive – structure, functions
and workings.
c. The Judiciary – structure, functions
and workings.
7. Public Commissions Established by the
1979 and Subsequent Constitutions:
The Civil Service Commission, the Public
Complaints Commission, Electoral
Commissions, National Boundary
Commission and others – objectives
functions and problems .
8. Political Parties and Party Politics in
Post-Independence Nigeria:
a. First Republic
b. Second Republic
c. Third Republic
d. Fourth Republic
– Evolution, membership spread,
structure etc

9. The Structure and Workings of
Nigerian Federalism:
a. Rationale for a Federal System;
b. Tiers of government and their
c. Creation of States – 1963, 1967,
1976, 1987, 1991, 1996;
d. Problems of Nigerian Federalism –
census, revenue allocation, conflicts
etc. solutions e.g. Federal character,
10. Public Corporations and Parastatals:
a. Definition, types, purpose and
b. Finance, control and problems;
c. Deregulation, privatization,
commercialization – objectives,
features, merits and demerits;
d. Comparison between public
corporations and parastatals.
11. Local Government:
a. Local government administration
prior to 1976;
b. Features of local government reforms
(1976, 1989) – structure, functions,
finance and inter-governmental
c. Traditional rulers and local
d. Problems of local government
administration in Nigeria.
12. The Military in Nigerian Politics:
a. Factors that led to military
b. Structure of military regimes;
c. Impact of military rule – political, e.g
creation of states, introduction of
unitary system (Unification Decree
NO. 34) etc. economic, e.g SAP, etc.
d. Processes of military disengagement


1. Foreign Policy:
– Definition, purpose, determining
factors; formulation and
2. Nigeria’s Foreign Policy:
a. Relations with major powers;
b. Relations with developing
countries, e.g the Technical Aid
Corps (TAC), etc.
c. Nigeria’s Non-Alignment Policy.
3. Relations with African Countries:
a. Africa as the “centre piece” of
Nigeria’s forieign policy – guiding
principles, implementation and
b. NEPAD – origin, objectives and
4. Nigeria in International Organizations
a. The United Nations;
b. The Commonwealth;
c. The Organization of African Unity;
d. The African Union;
e. The Economic Community of West
African States (ECOWAS);
f. The Organization of Petroleum
Exporting Countries (OPEC).


1. International Organizations
b. OAU, AU;
c. Commonwealth;
d. OPEC;
e. UNO;
f. African Petroleum Producers
– Origin, objectives, structure, functions,
achievements, problems and prospects of
these organizations.



Learning Outcomes

At the end of this course, candidates should be able to:

1. Acquire the basic knowledge of Commerce;
2. Examine the relationship between Commerce and other related fields;
3. Apply the principles of Commerce in the Nigerian economy and
4. Appreciate dynamic and positive changes in commercial activities.

Ekoma Kingsley Omoriotimwa

Ekoma Kingsley Omoriotimwa

Course Instructor

In this course, I will use various E-learning tools to help you prepare for your exams. Commerce is a field that students who have an interest in Accounting, Economics, and other commercial studies often consider taking during JAMB. Students who are looking forward to pursuing a career in Commerce have a wide range of choices before them. I encourage you to enroll in this course

Course Syllabus


(i) Meaning and scope
(ii) Characteristics
(iii) Functions


(i) Meaning and importance
(ii) Types (industrial, commercial and
(iii) Factors that determine choice of


(i) Factors, characteristics and rewards
(land, labour, capital and entrepreneur)
(ii) Division of Labour and specialization
(iii) Types (primary, secondary and


a. Home Trade
(i) Retail trade:
– Types of retailers
– Functions of retailers
– Factors to be considered in setting
up retail trade
– Trends in retailing (branding, self –
service, vending machines, the use
of luncheon, fuel vouchers,etc)
– Advantages and disadvantages of
(ii) Wholesale trade:
– Types of wholesalers (merchant,
agent, general, etc)
– Functions of wholesalers
– Advantages and disadvantages of
b. Foreign trade
(i) Basic issues in foreign trade (balance of
trade, balance of payments and counter
(ii) Procedures and documents used in
export, import and entrepôt trade
(iii) Barriers to international trade
(iv) Role of Customs and Excise Authority,
Ports Authority, etc in foreign trade
5. Purchase and Sale of Goods
(i) Procedure and documentation
(enquiry, quotation, order, invoice,
proforma invoice, statement of
accounts, indent, consular invoice, bill
of lading, certificate of origin,
consignment note, etc)
(ii) Terms of trade (trade discount,
quantity discount, cash discount,
warranties, C.O.D., C.I.F., F.O.B., and
E.O.E. etc)
(iii) Terms of payments
a. Cash – Legal tender
b. Credit
– Types and functions
– Merits and demerits


a. Advertising:
(i) Types and media
(ii) Advantages and disadvantages
b. Banking:
(i) Types of bank
(ii) Services
(iii) Challenges
c. Communication:
(i) Process and procedure
(ii) Types
(iii) Trends
(iv) Merits and demerits
(v) Barriers
d. Insurance:
(i) Types
(ii) Principles
(iii) Terms
(iv) Importance
e. Tourism:
(i) Importance
(ii) Agencies that promote tourism in
(iii) Challenges
f. Transportation:
(i) Mode
(ii) Importance
(iii) Advantages and disadvantages
g. Warehousing:
(i) Importance
(ii) Types and functions
(iii) Factors to be considered in siting
a warehouse

Business Units

(i) Forms and features (Sole
Proprietorship, Partnership, Limited
Liability Companies, Public
Corporations, Cooperative Societies,
(ii) Registration of businesses
(iii) Business Mergers
(iv) Determination of choice of business
(v) Dissolution and liquidation
(vi) Merits and demerits

Financing Business

(i) Sources of finance (personal savings,
sale of shares and bonds, loans,
debentures, mortgage, bank overdraft,
ploughing back of profit, credit
purchase, leasing, etc.)
(ii) Types of capital (share capital, capital
owned, authorized (capital, issued
capital, called-up capital, paid-up
capital, liquid capital, working capital
and owners’ equity)
(iii) Calculation of forms of capital, profits
(gross and net) and turnover
(iv) Problems of sourcing finance
(v) The role of Bureaux de change in an

Trade Associations

(i) Objectives and functions of trade and
manufacturer’s associations (Cocoa
Farmers’ Association, Garri Sellers’
Association, Poultry Farmers’
Association, etc.)
(ii) Objectives and functions of Chambers
of Commerce.


(i) Evolution
(ii) Forms and qualities
(iii) Functions

Stock Exchange

(i) Importance and functions
(ii) Types of securities (stocks, shares,
bonds, debentures, etc)
(iii) Procedure of transactions and
(iv) Second-Tier Securities Market, (listing
requirements, types of companies for
the market, advantages and operating
regulations of the market.)

Elements of Business Management

(i) Functions (planning, organizing,
staffing, coordinating, motivating,
communicating, controlling etc)
(ii) Principles (span of control, unity of
command, delegation of authority, etc)
(iii) Organizational structure (line, line and
staff, functional, matrix and
(iv) Functional areas of business
(production, marketing, finance and
(v) Business resources (man, money,
materials, machines and

Elements of Marketing

(i) Importance and Functions
(ii) The marketing concept (consumer
orientation, customer satisfaction,
integrated marketing, etc)
(iii) Marketing mix (product, price, place
and promotion)
(iv) Market Segmentation
(v) Public relations and Customer Service

Legal Aspects of Business

(i) Meaning and validity of a simple
(ii) Agency, Sale of Goods Act and Hire
Purchase Act
(iii) Contract of employment
(iv) Government regulations of business
(registration of business, patents,
trademarks, copyrights, etc) 

(v) Consumer protection (Government
legislation, Standards Organization
Trade Descriptions Act, Consumer
Protection Council, NAFDAC,
NDLEA, Customs and Excise, etc.)
(vi) Regulatory agencies.

Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

a. Computer:
(i) Appreciation and application
(ii) Types and functions
(iii) Merits and demerits
(iv) Challenges
b. Terms (Internet, Intranet, browsing,
password, e-mail, google, yahoo, search,
Local Area Network, etc.)
c. Activities:
(i) e-commerce
(ii) e-banking
(iii) e-business

Business Environment and Social Responsibility

(i) Legal, political, economic, social,
cultural, technological environments,
(ii) Safe products, philanthropic and
societal consideration
(iii) Types and implication of pollution
(water, air, land, etc.)


Christian Religious Studies

Learning Outcomes

At the end of this course, candidates should be able to:

  1. acquire the knowledge and understanding of the tenets of the Christian faith as contained in the Bible.
  2. Interpret biblical teachings and themes.
  3. Apply biblical teachings and tenets to life in society.
    Idam Chijioke Daniel

    Idam Chijioke Daniel

    Course Instructor

    The benefits of Enrolling in 321exam Christian Religious Studies online course;

    1. It equips the learner with an understanding of God/Spiritual growth.
    2. The learner acquires life skills to handle challenges in life.
    3. It helps one to respect his or her own/other people’s religious beliefs and culture.
    4. It helps one to acquire basic principles for Christian living / moral values.
    5. It enables one to understand how to relate with other people.
    6. It gives answers to questions/mysteries of life.
    7. It explains the original purpose of human beings on earth.
    8. It equips you to pass your CRS exam
    Ekoma Kingsley Omoriotimoa

    Ekoma Kingsley Omoriotimoa

    Assistant Course Instructor

    Course Syllabus


    Themes from Creation to the Division of the
    1. The Sovereignty of God
    God as Creator and Controller of the Universe
    (Gen. 1 and 2) cf. Amos 9:5-6; Is. 45:5-12
    2. The Covenant
    (a) The flood and God’s covenant with Noah
    (Gen. 6:1-22; 7:1-24; 9:1-17)
    (b) God’s covenant with Abraham (Gen.
    11:31-32; 12:1-9; 17:1-21; 21:1-13;
    (c) God’s covenant with Israel (Ex. 19; 20 ) The New Covenant (Jer. 31:31-34; Ezek
    3. Leadership Qualities:
    Examples of
    (a) Joseph (Gen. 37:1-28; 41:1-57; 45:1-15)
    (b) Moses (Ex. 1; 2; 3; 4:1-17; 5; 12; Num.
    13:1-20; 14:1-19)
    (c) Joshua (Num. 13:21-33; 27:15-23; Josh.
    1:1-15; 6; 7; 24:1-31)
    (d) Judges (Deborah-Jug. 4:1-24; GideonJudge 6:11-40; Samson-Judge 13:1-7, 21-
    25; 16:4-31)
    4. Devine Providence
    (a) Guidance and Protection (Gen. 24:1-61;
    28:10-22; 46:1-7: Ex. 13:17-22; 14:1-4;
    (b) Provision (Gen. 21:14-18; 22:1-14; Ex.
    16:1-21; 17:1-7; Num. 20:1-13; 1 Kings
    5. Parental Responsibility:
    Examples of
    (a) Eli and Samuel (1 Sam. 2:11-36; 3:2-18;
    4:10-22: 8:15)
    (b) David and his sons (11 Sam. 13; 15:1-29;
    18; 19:1-8)
    (c) Asa and Jehoshaphat (1 Kings 15:9-15;
    22:41-44; cf. Deut. 6:4-9; Prov. 4:1-10;
    13:1; 24; 22:6; 23:13-14; 31:10-31)
    6. i) Obedience and Rewards
    Examples of
    (a) Abraham (Gen. 22:1-19)
    (b) Hebrew Midwives (Ex. 1:8-22)
    (c) David (1 Sam. 30:1-20)
    ii) Disobedience and Consequences
    Examples of
    (a) Adam (Gen. 2:15-25; 3)
    (b) Collection of Manna (Ex. 16:22-30)
    (c) The Golden Calf (Ex. 32)
    (d) Moses (Num. 20:7-12; Deut. 34:1-6)
    (e) Saul (1 Sam. 10:1-16; 15:1-25; 16:14-23;
    7. A man after God’s own heart
    (a) The early life of David (1 Sam. 16:1-13;
    17; 18:17-30; 22:1-5; 24:1-23; II Sam.
    2:1-7; 3:1-39)
    (b) David’s submission to the will of God
    (I Sam. 26:1-25); II Sam 12:15-25 

    (c) Repentance and forgiveness (II Sam. 11;
    12:1-15, cf. Ps. 51:130)
    8. Decision – Making
    (a) Reliance on medium (I Sam. 28:3-25)
    (b) The Wisdom of Solomon (I Kings 3:3-28;
    4:29-34; 5:1-12; 8:1-53)
    (c) Unwise Policies of Solomon and
    Rehoboam (I Kings 9:15-23; 11:1-40;


    Themes from the Division of the Kingdom to the
    Return from Exile and the Prophets
    1. Greed and its Effects
    Example of
    (a) Ahab (I Kings 21:1-29; 22:1-40; II Kings
    (b) Gehazi (II Kings 5:1-27 cf (Josh 7)
    2. The Supremacy of God
    Religious Tension and the Power of God on
    Mount Carmel (I Kings 16:29-34; 17:1-7; 18;
    3. Religious Reforms in Judah
    (a) Cleansing of the Temple (II Kings 22)
    (b) Renewal of the Covenant (II Kings 23:1-
    4. Concern for Judah
    (a) The fall of Jerusalem (II kings 24; 25:1-
    (b) Condition of Judah (Neh. 1:1-11; Ezra
    (c) Response to the state of Judah (Neh. 2;
    4:1-23 Ezra 3:4; 5; 6; 7)
    5. Faith in God
    Faith, Courage and Protection (Dan. 1; 3:1-

    6. God’s Message to Nineveh
    Jonah and his massage (Jonah 1; 2; 3 and 4)
    7. Social, Justice, True Religion and Divine Love
    (a) Social justice and true religion (Amos
    2:6-8; 4; 5:1-25; 6:1-14; 7:10-17; 8:4-14)
    (b) Divine Love and human reponse (Hosea
    1; 2; 3; 4; 6:1-11; 14)
    8. Holiness and Divine Call
    (Isaiah 6:1-13; Ezek. 2; 3:1-11; Jer. 1:4-10)
    9. Punishment and Hope
    (Jer. 3:11-18; 32:26-35; Ezek. 18; 37:1-14;
    Isaiah 61)


    Themes from the four Gospels and the Acts of the
    1. The Birth and early Life of Jesus
    (a) John, the forerunner of Jesus (Lk. 1:5-25;
    57-66; 3:1-20; 7:18-35; Mk. 1:1-8; 6:14-
    29; Mt. 3:1-12; Jn. 1:6-8; 19-37)
    (b) The brith and boyhood of Jesus (Mt. 1:18-
    25; 2; Lk. 1:26-45:2)
    2. The Baptism and Temptation of Jesus
    (Mt. 3:13-17; 4:1-11; Mk. 1:9-13; Lk. 3:21-22;
    3. Discipleship
    (a) The call of the first disciples (Mt. 4:18 22;
    9:9-13; Mk. 1:16-20; 2:13-17; Lk. 5:1-11;
    (b) The cost of discipleship (Mt. 8:19-22; Lk.
    9:57-63; 14:25-33)

    4. Miracles
    (a) Nature Miracles
    (i) Stilling the storm (Mt. 8:23-27; Mk.
    4:35-41; Lk.8:22-25)
    (ii) Feeding of the Five Thousand (Mt.
    4:13-24; Mk. 6:30-44; Lk, 9:10-17;
    Jn. 6:1-13)
    (iii) Walking on the sea (Mt. 4:22-26;
    Mk. 6:45-52; Jn. 6:16-21)
    (iv) Changing water to wine (Jn. 2:1-11)
    (b) Miracles of Resuscitation
    (i) The raising of Lazarus (Jn. 11:1-45)
    (ii) The raising of Jairu’s daughter (Lk.
    8:41-42, 49-56; Mk. 5:21-43)
    (iii) The raising of the widow’s son at
    Nain (Lk. 7:11-17)
    (c) Healing Miracles
    (i) The leper (Mt. 8:1-4; Mk. 1:40-45;
    Lk. 5:12-16; 17:11-19)
    (ii) The paralytic at the pool (Jn. 5:1-17)
    (iii) The centurion’s servant (Mt. 8:5-13;
    Lk. 7:1-10)
    (iv) The blind (Jn. 9:1-12; Mk. 10:46-52;
    Lk. 18:35-43)
    (d) Exorcism
    (i) The Gerasenes (Gadarenes) demoniac
    (Mt. 8:28-34; Mk. 5:1-20; Lk. 8:21-
    (ii) The epileptic boy (Mk. 9:14-29; Lk.
    9:37-43a; Mt. 17:14-21)
    5. The Parables
    (a) Parables of the Kingdom
    (i) The sower (Mt. 13:1-23; Mk. 4:1-20)
    (ii) The weeds (Mt. 13:24-30; 36-43)
    (b) Parables about love of God (Mt. 18:12-
    14; Lk. 15:1-32)
    (c) Parables about love for one another
    (Lk.10:25-37; 16:19-31)
    (d) Parable about wealth: The rich fool (Lk.
    6. Sermon on the Mount
    (Mt. 5; 6:1-18; Lk. 6:17-26; Mt. 6:19-34)
    7. Mission of the Disciples
    (a)The mission of the twelve
    (Mt. 10:5-15; Mk. 6:7-13; Lk. 9:1-16)

    (b)The mission of the seventy (Lk. 10:1-24)
    8. The Great Confession
    (Mt. 16:13-20; Mk. 8:27-30; Lk. 9:18-22)
    9. The Transfiguration
    (Mt. 17:1-13; Mk. 9:2-13; Lk. 9:28-36)
    10. The Triumphal Entry and the
    cleansing of the Temple
    (Mt. 21:1-17; Mk. 11:1-19; Lk. 19:29-48)
    11. The Last Supper
    (Mt. 26:17-30; Mk. 14:10-26
    Lk. 22:7-23; Jn. 13:2-38)
    12. The Trials and the Death of Jesus
    (a) The Trials of Jesus
    (i) Before the High Priest
    (Mt. 26:36-75;
    Mk. 14:53-72
    Lk. 22:66-71)
    (ii) Before Pilate
    (Mt. 27:11-26; Mk. 15:1-15;
    Lk. 23:1-5; 13-25;
    Jn. 18:28-40; 19:1-16)
    (iii) Before Herod
    (Lk. 23:6-12)
    (b) Crucifixion and Burial of Jesus
    (Mt. 27:32-66; Lk. 23:26-56;
    Mk. 15:16-47; Jn. 19:17-42)
    13. Resurrection, Appearances
    and Ascension of Jesus
    (Mt. 28:1-20; Mk. 16:1-20;
    Lk. 24:1-53; Jn. 20:1-31;
    Acts 1:1-11) 

    14. Jesus’ Teachings about
    (a) The Bread of Life and the
    Living Water (Jn. 4:7-15;
    (b) The Light of the World
    (Jn. 1:4-8; 3:19-21; 8:12
    9:1-5; 12:35-36)
    (a) The Door and the Good
    Shepherd (Jn. 10:1-18)
    (b) The True Vine (Jn. 15:1-11)
    15. Love
    (a) God’s love for man
    (Jn. 3:16-18)
    (b) Love for one another
    (Jn. 13:34-35; 15:12-13
    cf. I Jn. 4:7-21)
    16. Fellowship in the Early Church
    (a) Communal living
    (Acts 1:15-26; 2:41-47;
    (b) Problems of communal
    living and solutions
    (Acts 5:1-11, 6:1-6)
    17. The Holy Spirit and the Mission
    of the Church
    (a) The Pentecost (Acts 1:8;
    (b) The Mission of the Church
    (Acts 8:4-40)
    18. Opposition to the Gospel Message
    (a) The arrest and imprisonment of
    Peter and John
    (Acts 3; 4:1-22; 5:17-42
    (b) The martyrdom of Stephen
    (Acts 6:8-15; 7)
    (c) Persecution by Saul
    (Acts 8:1-3; 9:1-2)
    cf. Gal. 1:11-17
    19. Mission to the Gentiles
    (a) Conversion of Saul (Acts 9:1-30; 22:4-21;
    (b) Conversion of Cornelius
    (Acts 10:1-48)
    (c) The commissioning and mission of Paul
    (Acts 13; 14:1-20);
    (d) The Council of Jerusalem
    (Acts 15:1-35; Gal. 2:1-21)
    (e) Persecution of Paul
    (Acts 16:11-40; 19:23-41
    cf. II Cor. 11:23-33


    Themes from Selected Epistles
    1. Justification by Faith
    (Rom. 3:21-24; 5:1-11; 10:1-13)
    2. The Law and Grace
    (Rom. 4:13-25; 5:18-21;
    Gal. 3:10-14; 19-29)
    3. New Life in Christ
    (Rom. 6:1-4; 12-14; Col. 3:1-17;
    Gals. 5:16-26; II Cor. 5:16-19;
    I Thess. 4:1-8; Rom. 12)

    4. Christians as Joint Heirs with Christ
    (Gal. 3:23-29; 4:1-7)
    5. Humility
    (Phil. 2:1-11; I Pet. 5:5-11)
    6. Forgiveness
    (Philemon; II Cor. 2:5-11)

    7. Spiritual Gifts
    (I Cor. 12; Rom. 12:3-18; I Cor. 14)
    8. Christian Giving
    (Phil. 4:14-20; II Cor. 8:1-5; 9)
    9. Civic Responsibility
    (Rom. 13; I Tim. 2:1-4)
    10. Dignity of Labour
    (II Thess. 3:6-15; Col. 3:23-35)
    11. The Second Coming of Christ
    (a) The signs of the Coming of Christ (I
    4:13-18; II Thess. 2:1-12)
    (b) Preparation for His coming
    (I Thess. 5:1-11; II Pet. 3:1-13)
    12. Impartiality
    (James 2:1-13)
    cf. Acts 10:34-35
    13. Effective Prayer
    (James 1:2-8; 4:1-3; 5:13-18)
    14. Christian Living in the
    (a)Interpersonal relationship
    among Christians (I Pet. 5:1-4;
    Rom. 12:3-21)
    (b)Christians living among non-
    Christians (I Pet. 2:3-25; Rom. 15:1-2)
    (c)Christian attitude to persecution
    (I Pet. 1:5-9; 4:1-19)
    (d)Relationship in the Christian
    Family (Eph. 6: 1-9; Col. 3:18-21;
    I Pet. 3:1-7)


    Islamic Religious Studies 

    Learning Outcomes

    At the end of this course, candidates should be able to:

    1. master the Qur’an and Sunnah as foundations of Islamic and social life;
    2. be familiar with Islamic heritage, culture, and civilization;
    3. be acquainted with the tradition of Islamic scholarship and intellectual discourse;
    4. demonstrate knowledge of Islamic moral, spiritual, political, and social values;
    5. be prepared to face the challenges of life as good practicing Muslims

    Ishaq Muhammed Jamiu

    Ishaq Muhammed Jamiu

    Course Instructor

    This course is not designed for Muslims alone and here is why; First, taking the time to know some of the basics about your Muslim neighbor’s faith allows you to ask informed questions that provoke deep conversations. As you familiarize yourself with what your Muslim neighbor holds most dear, you convey that you care about them. Next, your understanding of Islamic theology and the traditional accounts of historical development will shape your knowledge of the fundamental differences between Islam and Christianity and more. You should also enroll in this course to pass your IRS Examination.

    Course Syllabus


    1. Revelation of the Glorious Qur’an
    (i) Visits of the Prophet (SAW) to Cave
    (ii) His reaction to the first revelation
    and its importance
    (iii) Different modes of revelation
    (Q.42:51): the inspiration behind the veil, through an angel, etc.
    (iv) Piecemeal revelation (Q.17:106)
    1b. Preservation of the Glorious Qur’an
    (i) Complete arrangement
    (ii) Differences between Makkah and
    Madinan suwar
    (iii) Recording, compilation and standardization of the Glorious
    (iv) The role played by the
    Companions of the Prophet (SAW)
    1c. Importance of the Glorious Qur’an
    as a source of guidance in spiritual,
    moral, economic, political and
    socio-cultural matters.
    1d. Proof of the Divine authenticity of the
    Glorious Qur’an (Q.4:82) (Q.41:42)
    (i) Uniqueness of the Glorious
    Qur’an (Q.39:27) (Q.17:88)
    (ii) Divine preservation of the Glorious Qur’an
    2. Tafsir
    (i) Historical development of Tafsir
    (ii) Importance of Tafsir
    (iii) Types of Tafsir
    3. Introduction to Tajwid (Theory and
    4. Study of the Arabic text of the following
    suwar/ayats with tajwid
    (a) al-Fatihah (Q.1)
    (b) al -Adiyat (Q.100)
    (c) al -Qari’ah (Q.101)
    (d) at -Takathur (Q.102)
    (e) al -Asr ((Q.103)
    (f) al -Humazah (Q.104)
    (g) al -Maun ((Q.107
    (h) al -Kawthar (Q.108)
    (i) al – Kafirun (Q. 109)
    (j) al- Nasr (Q. 110)
    (k) al -Masad ((Q.111)
    (l) al -Ikhlas (Q.112)
    (m) al -Falaq ((Q.113)
    (n) an-Nas (Q.114 5. Study of the Arabic text of the following
    suwar/ayats with tajwid
    (a) al-A’ala (Q.87)
    (b) ad-Duha (Q.93)
    (c) al-Inshirah (Q.94)
    (d) at-Tin (Q.95)
    (e) al-Alaq (Q.96)
    (f) al-Qadr (Q.97)
    (g) al-Bayyinah (Q.98)
    (h) al-Zilzal (Q.99)
    (i) Ayatul-Kursiy (Q.2:255)
    (j) Amanar-Rasul (Q.2:285-6)
    (k) Laqad jaakun (Q.9:128-129)
    6. Hadith
    (a) History of Hadith literature –
    Collection of Hadith from the time of
    the Prophet(SAW) to the period of the
    six authentic collectors of Hadith
    (b) Authentication of Hadith
    (i) Isnad (Asma’ur-rijal)
    (ii) Matn
    (iii) Classification of Hadith into Sahih
    Hassan and Da’if
    (c) The relationship between Hadith and the
    Glorious Qur’an
    (i) The importance of Hadith
    (ii) The similarities and differences
    between Hadith and the Glorious
    Qur’an (d) The six sound collectors of Hadith –
    biographies and their works.
    (e) Muwatta and its author – The
    biography of Imam Malik and the
    study of his book
    (f) The study of the Arabic texts of the
    following ahadith from an-Nawawi’s
    collection: 1,3,5,6,7,9,10,11,12,13,15,16,
    18,19,21, 22,25,27,34, and 41
    7. Moral lessons in the Glorious Qur’an and
    (a) General moral lessons contained in the admonition of Sage Luqman to his son
    (b) Goodness to parents (Q.17:23-24)
    (c) Honesty (Q.2:42)(Q.61:2-3)
    (d) Prohibition of bribery and corruption
    (Q:2:188), alcohol and gambling
    (Q.2:219) (Q.5:93-94), stealing and
    fraud (Q.5:41) (83:1-5), smoking, drug
    abuse and other intoxicants (Q.2:172-
    173, 195 and 219) (Q.4:43) (Q.5:3)
    (Q.6:118-121) arrogance (Q.31:18-19)
    and extravagance (Q.17:26-27)
    (e) Dignity of labour (Q.62:10) (Q.78:11)
    Hadith from Bukhari and Ibn Majah:
    “that one of you takes his rope…….”
    “never has anyone of you eaten……”.
    (f) Behaviour and modesty in dressing
    (Q.24:27-31) (Q.33:59)
    (g) Adultery and fornication (Q.17:32)
    (Q.24:2), homosexuality (Q.11:77-78)
    and obscenity (Q:4:14-15) Hadith – “No one of you should meet a woman
    privately …… “Bukhari
    (h) Leadership (Q.2:124) and justice (Q.4:58
    and 135) (Q.5:9) Hadith – ‘take care
    every one of you is a governor …..
    concerning his subjects” (al-Bukhari and
    (i) Trust and obligations (Q:4:58) (Q.5:1)
    and promises (Q.16:91) Hadith ‘he has
    (really) no faith …. Not fulfilled his
    promise” (Baihaqi)
    (j) Piety (Taqwa) (Q:2:177) (Q.3:102)
    (Q.49:13) Hadith 18 and 35 of an
    (k) Tolerance, perseverance and patience
    (Q.2:153-157) (Q.3:200) (Q.103:3)
    Hadith 16 of an-Nawawi
    (l) Unity and brotherhood (Q.3:103)
    (Q.8:46) (Q.49:10) Hadith 35 of anNawawi
    (m) Enjoining what is good and forbidding
    what is wrong (Q.3:104 and 110)
    (Q.16:90) Hadith 25 and 34 of an


    (a) Faith
    (i) Tawhid
    Its importance and lessons
    (b) Kalimatush-Shahadah
    (i) Its meaning and importance
    (ii) The Oneness of Allah as contained in the
    following verses: (Q.3:19) Q.2:255)
    (Q.112:1-4) (iii) The servanthood and messengership of
    the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) as
    contained in the following verses
    (Q.3:144) (Q.18:110) (Q.48:29) and
    (iv) Universality of his message (Q.7:158)
    (v) Finality of his Prophethood (Q.33:40)
    (c) Shirk
    (i) Beliefs which are incompatible with
    the Islamic principles of Tawhid:
    – Worship of Idols (Q.4:48)
    – Ancestral worship (Q.4:48
    and 116) (Q.21:66-67)
    – Trinity (Q.4:171) (Q.5:76)
    – Atheism (Q.45:24) (Q.72:6)
    (d) General practices which are
    incompatible with Islamic principles of
    – Superstition (Q.25:43) (Q.72:6)
    – Fortune-telling (Q.15:16-18)
    – Magic and witchcraft
    (Q.2:102) (Q.20:69) and 73)
    – Cult worship (Q.17:23)
    – Innovation (Bid’ah) (Q.4:116)
    and Hadith 5 and 28 of an-
    Nawawi 9. Article of faith
    (a) Belief in Allah
    (i) Existence of Allah (Q.2:255)
    (ii) Attributes of Allah (Q.59:22-24)
    (iii) The works of Allah (Q.27:59:64)
    (b) Belief in Allah’s angels (Q.2:177 and 285)
    (Q.8:50) (Q.16:2)
    (c) His books (Q.2:253) and 285) (Q.3:3)
    (d) His Prophets: Ulul-azmi (Q.4:163-164)
    (e) The Last Day: Yawm-al-Ba’th
    (Q.23:15-16) (Q.70:4)
    (f) Destiny: distinction between Qada and
    Qadar (Q.2:117) (Q.16:40) (Q.36:82)
    10. Ibadat and their types
    (a) Good deeds (Q.3:134) (Q.6:160) (Q.2:177)
    (Q.31:8) (Q.103:1-3) 26th Hadith of
    (b) Taharah, its types and importance (alistinja’/istijmar, alwudu’, at-tayammum and
    al-ghusl (Q.2:222) (Q.5:7) Hadith 10 and
    23 of an-Nawawi.
    (c) Salah
    (i) Importance: (Q.2:45) (Q.20:132)
    (Q.29:45) and Hadith 23rd of
    (ii) Description and types of salah
    (iii) Things that vitiate salah
    (d) Zakah
    (i) Its types and importance (zakatul-fitr,
    zakatul mal, al-an-am and al-harth
    (Q.2:267) (Q.9:103) 3rd Hadith of  an-Nawawi
    (ii) Collection and disbursement (Q.9:60)
    (iii) Difference between Zakah and
    (e) Sawm
    (i) Its types and importance (fard, sunnah,
    qada and kaffarah) (Q.2:183-185) 3rd
    Hadith of an-Nawawi
    (ii) People exempted from sawm
    (iii) Things that vitiate sawm
    (f) Hajj
    (i) Its importance (Q.2:158 and 197)
    (Q.3:97) (Q.22:27-28)
    (ii) Type (Ifrad, Qiran and Tamattu)
    (iii) Essentials of Hajj (Arkan al Hajj)
    (v) Conditions for the performance of
    (iv) Differences between Hajj and Umrah
    (g) Jihad: Concept, kinds, manner and
    Lessons (Q.2:190-193) (Q.22:39-40)
    11. Family Matters
    (a) Marriage
    (i) Importance (Q.16:72) (Q.24:32)
    (ii) Prohibited categories (Q.2:221)
    (iii) Conditions for its validity (Q.4:4)
    (iv) Rights and duties of husbands and
    wives (Q.4:34-35) (Q.20:132)
    (v) Polygamy (Q.4:3 and 129)
    (b) Idrar ill-treatment of wife (Q. 65:1-3) (c) Divorce
    (i) Attitude of Islamic to divorce (Q.2:228)
    (Q.4:34-35) Hadith “of al things
    lawful … most hateful to Allah..”
    (Abu Daud 15:3)
    (ii) Kinds (Talaq, Khul;, Faskh, Mubara’ah
    and Lian) (Q.2:229-230) (Q.24:6-9)
    (iii) Iddah, kinds, duration and importance
    (Q.2:228 and 234)
    (iv) Prohibited forms of dissolution of
    marriage. (Ila and Zihar) (Q.2:226-
    227) (Q.58:2-4)
    (v) Custody of children (Hadanah) (d) Inheritance
    (i) Its importance
    (ii) Heirs and their shares (Q.4:7-8, 11-12
    and 176)
    12. Sources and Schools of Law
    (i) The four major sources (the Qur’an,
    Sunnah, Ijma and Qiyas)
    (ii) The four Sunni Schools of law
    13. Islamic Economic System
    (i) Islamic attitude to Riba (Q.2:275-
    280) (Q.3:130) (Q.4:161) Hadith 6
    of an-Nawawi
    (ii) At-tatfif (Q.83:1-6) (iii) Hoarding (ihtikar) (Q.9:34)
    (iv) Islamic sources of revenue: Zakah,
    Jizyah, Kharaj and Ghanimah
    (v) Baitul-mal as an institution of socioeconomic welfare
    (vi) Difference between the Islamic
    the economic system and the Western
    economic system
    14. Islamic Political System
    (i) Allah as the Sovereign (Q.3:26-27)
    (ii) The concept of Shurah (consultation)
    (Q.3:159( (Q.42:38)
    (iii) The concept of Adalah (justice)
    (Q.5.9) (Q.17:13-14 and 36) and
    Mas’uliyah (accountability) (Q.4:58)
    (iv) The rights of non-Muslims in an
    Islamic state (Q.2:256) (Q.6:108)
    (v) Differences between the Islamic
    political system and the Western
    political system.


    15. Pre-Islamic Arabia (Jahiliyyah)
    (i) Jahiliyyah practices: idol worship,
    infancticide, polyandry, gambling,
    usury, etc.
    (ii) Islamic reforms
    16. The Life of Prophet Muhammad (SAW)
    (i) His birth and early life
    (ii) His call to Prophethood
    (iii) Da’wah in Makkah and Madinah (iv) The Hjrah
    (v) Administration of the Ummah and the
    role of the mosque (Q.3:159) (Q.4:58
    and 135)
    (vi) The Battles of Badr, Uhud and
    Khandaq: causes and effects
    (vii) The Treaty of al-Hudaibiyyah and the
    conquest of Makkah
    (viii) Hijjatul-wada (the farewell
    pilgrimage) sermon, and lessons.
    (ix) Qualities of Muhammad (SAW) and
    lessons learnt from them
    17. The Rightly Guided Caliphs (al-Khulafa’u
    rashidun) – the lives and contributions of the four
    Rightly Guided Caliph 18. Early contact of Islam with Africa
    (i) Hijrah to Abyssinia
    (ii) The spread of Islam to Egypt
    (ii) The role of traders, teachers,
    preachers, Murabitun, Sufi orders
    and Mujaddidun to the spread of
    Islam in West Africa.
    19. The Impact of Islam in West Africa
    (i) The influence of Islam on the sociopolitical life of some West African
    Empires: Ghana, Mali, Songhai and
    Borno (ii) The impact of Islam on the economic
    life of some West African states:
    Timbuktu, Kano and Borno
    20. Contributions of Islam to Education
    (i) The aims and objectives of Islamic
    (ii) The Glorious Qur’an and Hadith on
    Education (Q.96:1-5) (Q.39:9)
    (i) “The search for knowledge is obligatory
    on every Muslim” (Ibn Majah)
    (ii) “Seek knowledge from the cradle to
    the grave”
    (iii) “The words of wisdom are a lost
    property of the believer … a better
    right to it…. “ (Tirmidhi)
    (iv) Intellectual activities of Islam in
    West Africa (development of written
    history in Arabic and the
    establishment of Sankore University)
    (v) Intellectual activities of Ahmad Baba
    of Timbuktu, Sheikh al-Maghili,
    sheikh Usman Danfodio, Sultan
    Muhammad Bello and Ibn Battuta
    (vi) Islamic Education Institutions: House
    of Wisdom in Baghdad, al-Azhar
    University in Cairo and Nizamiyyah
    University in Baghdad.
    (vii) The lives and contributions of Ibn
    Sina, Al-Ghazali, IBn Rushdi, arRazio and ibn Khaldun to education


    Literature in English

    Learning Outcomes

    At the end of this course, candidates should be able to:

     stimulate and sustain their interest in Literature in English;
     create an awareness of the general principles of Literature and functions of language;
     appreciate literary works of all genres and across all cultures;
     apply the knowledge of Literature in English to the analysis of social, political and
    economic events in the society.

    Kayode komolefe

    Kayode komolefe

    Course Instructor

    1. In this course, we will teach you how to understand exam questions, so you’re able to give the right answers. No matter how good an answer is, it must be able to address the requirements of the question asked. Examiners like JAMB love to ask questions with similar answer options, as a way of keeping standards in line. We will teach you how to deal with this and we will also be in the Course Forum to answer any more questions you may have.
    Nwite Jacob Obinna

    Nwite Jacob Obinna

    Assistant Course Instructor

    Course Syllabus


    a. Types:
    i. Tragedy
    ii. Comedy
    iii. Tragicomedy
    iv. Melodrama
    v. Farce
    vi. Opera etc.
    b. Dramatic Techniques
    i. Characterisation
    ii. Dialogue
    iii. Flashback
    iv. Mime
    v. Costume
    vi. Music/Dance
    vii. Décor/scenery
    viii. Acts/Scenes
    ix. Soliloquy/aside
    x. Lighting etc.
    c. Interpretation of the Prescribed
    i. Theme
    ii. Plot
    iii. Socio-political context
    iv. Setting


    a. Types:
    i. Fiction
     Novel
     Novella/Novelette
     Short story
    ii. Non-fiction
     Biography
     Autobiography
     Memoir
    iii. Faction: combination of fact and
    b. Narrative Techniques/Devices:
    i. Point of view
     Omniscent/Third Person
     First Person
    ii. Characterisation
     Round, flat, foil, hero,
    antihero, etc
    iii. Language
    c. Textual Analysis
    i. Theme
    ii. Plot
    iii. Setting (Temporal/Spatial)
    iv. Socio-political context


    a. Types:
    i. Sonnet
    ii. Ode
    iii. Lyrics
    iv. Elegy
    v. Ballad
    vi. Panegyric
    vii. Epic
    viii. Blank Verse, etc.

    b. Poetic devices
    i. Structure
    ii. Imagery
    iii. Sound(Rhyme/Rhythm,
    repetition, pun, onomatopoeia,
    iv. Diction
    v. Persona
    c. Appreciation
    i. Thematic preoccupation
    ii. Socio-political relevance
    iii. Style.


    a. Literary terms:
    foreshadowing, suspense, theatre,
    monologue, dialogue, soliloquy,
    symbolism, protagonist, antagonist,
    figures of speech, satire, stream of
    consciousness, synecdoche,
    metonymy, etc,
    in addition to those listed above under
    the different genres.
    b. Literary principles
    i. Direct imitation in play;
    ii. Versification in drama and
    iii. Narration of people’s
    iv. Achievement of aesthetic value,
    c. Relationship between literary terms
    and principles.


    Unseen passages/extracts from Drama,
    Prose and Poetry

    A world-class education 

    for anyone, anywhere.


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