Course Content

The Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus

Was used to design our courses. Our course contents are also relevant for other exams, such as the National Examination Council (NECO) exams, the West African Examination Council (WAEC) exams, and the General Certificate of Education (GCE) exams.


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Use of English

Learning Outcomes

At the end of this course, candidates should be able to:

(i) Communicate effectively in both written and spoken English

(ii) Use the English Language for learning at the tertiary level; and

(iii) Pass the exams with ease

Idachaba Sunny

Idachaba Sunny

Course Instructor

We will teach you how to understand exam questions. It doesn’t matter how good your answer is if you misunderstand the question, you may get it wrong. Examiners, such as JAMB and TOEFL love to ask questions with similar answer options, it is a way they keep standards in line.  We will teach you the Use of English and we will be in the course forum to answer your questions.

Ezeukwu Charles Ikenna

Ezeukwu Charles Ikenna

Assistant Course Instructor

Nwite Jacob Obinna

Nwite Jacob Obinna

Assistant Course Instructor

Course Syllabus


(a) Description
(b) Narration
(c) Exposition
(d) Argumentation/persuasion
(i) Each of the three passages to be set (one
will be a cloze test) should reflect
various disciplines and be about 200
words long.
(ii) Questions on the passages will test the
(a) Comprehension of the whole or
part of each passage.
(b) Comprehension of words, phrases,
clauses, sentences, figures of
speech and idioms as used in the
(c) Coherence and logical reasoning
(deductions, inferences, etc).
(d) The Last Days at Forcados High
School, A. H. Mohammed.
(e) Synthesis of ideas from the

Lexis and Structure

(a) Synonyms
(b) Antonyms
(c) Homonyms
(d) Clause and sentence patterns
(e) Word classes and their functions
(f) Mood, tense, aspect;
(g) Agreement/concord and degree,
(h) Comparative and superlative,
(i) Question tags
(j) Punctuation and spelling
(k) Ordinary usage, figurative usage and
idiomatic usage.

Oral Forms

(a) Vowels (monothongs and diphthongs)
(b) Consonants (including clusters)
(c) Rhymes (including homophones)
(d) Word stress (monosyllabic and polysyllabic)
(e) Intonation (emphatic stress)



Learning Outcomes

At the end of this course, candidates should be able to:

(i) Acquire computational and manipulative skills;
(ii) Develop precise, logical and formal reasoning skills;
(iii) Develop deductive skills in interpretation of graphs, diagrams and data;
(iv) Apply mathematical concepts to resolve issues in daily living.

Oladipupo Simon Oladele

Oladipupo Simon Oladele

Course Instructor

Logical thinking is a transferable skill and it is needed in every career. Employers don’t expect every employee to come into a job with subject-matter expertise, but they do expect that people can think critically and learn quickly. Maths education builds these logical thinking skills. This course will help you acquire those skills you need to pass your exam, thrive in your tertiary education and succeed in the workplace.

Engr Oyibo Abdulrahaman

Engr Oyibo Abdulrahaman

Assistant Course Instructor

Course Syllabus


1. Number bases:
(a) Operations in different number bases from 2 to 10;
(b) Conversion from one base to another including fractional parts.
2. Fractions, Decimals, Approximations
and Percentages:
(a) Fractions and decimals;
(b) Significant figures;
(c) Decimal places;
(d) Percentage errors;
(e) Simple interest;
(f) Profit and loss percent;
(g) Ratio, proportion and rate;
(h) Shares and valued-added tax (VAT)

3. Indices, Logarithms, and Surds:
(a) Laws of indices;
(b) Standard form;
(c) Laws of logarithm;
(d) The logarithm of any positive number to a given base;(e) change of bases in logarithm and application;
(f) Relationship between indices and logarithm;
(g) Surds.

4. Sets:
(a) Types of sets
(b) Algebra of sets
(c) Venn diagrams and their applications.




1. Polynomials:
(a) Change of subject of formula
(b) Factor and remainder theorems
(c) Factorization of polynomials of degree not exceeding 3.
(d) Multiplication and division of polynomials
(e) Roots of polynomials not exceeding degree 3
(f) Simultaneous equations including one linear one quadratic;
(g) Graphs of polynomials of degree not greater than 3.

2. Variation:
(a) Direct
(b) Inverse
(c) Joint
(d) Partial
(e) Percentage increase and decrease.
3. Inequalities:
(a) Analytical and graphical solutions of linear inequalities;
(b) Quadratic inequalities with integral roots only.

4. Progression:
(a) nth term of a progression
(b) Sum of A. P. and G. P.

5. Binary Operations:
(a) Properties of closure, commutativity, associativity and distributivity;
(b) Identity and inverse elements (simple cases only).

6. Matrices and Determinants:
(a) Algebra of matrices not exceeding 3 x 3;
(b) Determinants of matrices not exceeding 3 x 3;
(c) Inverses of 2 x 2 matrices
[excluding quadratic and higher degree equations].


1. Euclidean Geometry:
(a) Properties of angles and lines
(b) Polygons: triangles, quadrilaterals and
general polygons;
(c) Circles: angle properties, cyclic
quadrilaterals and intersecting chords;
(d) Construction.
2. Mensuration:
(a) lengths and areas of plane geometrical
(b) Lengths of arcs and chords of a circle;
(c) Perimeters and areas of sectors and
segments of circles;
(d) Surface areas and volumes of simple
solids and composite figures;
(e) The earth as a sphere:- longitudes and
3. Loci:
locus in 2 dimensions based on geometric
principles relating to lines and curves.

4. Coordinate Geometry:
(a) Midpoint and gradient of a line
(b) Distance between two points;
(c) Parallel and perpendicular lines;
(d) Equations of straight lines.

5. Trigonometry:
(a) Trigonometrical ratios of angels;
(b) Angles of elevation and depression;
(c) Bearings;
(d) Areas and solutions of a triangle;
(e) graphs of sine and cosine;
(f) Sine and cosine formulae


I. Differentiation:
(a) Limit of a function
(b) Differentiation of explicit
algebraic and simple
trigonometrical functions –
sine, cosine and tangent.
2. Application of differentiation:
(a) Rate of change;
(b) Maxima and minima.
3. Integration:
(a) Integration of explicit
algebraic and simple
trigonometrical functions;
(b) Area under the curve


1. Representation of data:
(a) Frequency distribution;
(b) Histogram, bar chart and pie chart.
2. Measures of Location:
(a) Mean, mode and median of ungrouped
and grouped data – (simple cases only);
(b) Cumulative frequency

3. Measures of Dispersion:
range, mean deviation, variance and standard
4. Permutation and Combination:
(a) Linear and circular arrangements;
(b) Arrangements involving repeated objects.
(a) Experimental probability (tossing of coin,
throwing of a dice etc);
(b) Addition and multiplication of probabilities
(mutual and independent cases).



Learning Outcomes

 At the end of this course, candidates should be able to:

(I) Demonstrate sufficient knowledge and understanding of the basic concepts, tools and
general applications to economic analysis;
(ii) Identify and explain the basic structures, operations and roles of the various economic units
and institutions (national and international);
(iii) Describe major economic activities – production, distribution and consumption;
(iv) Identify and appraise the basic and current economic problems of society;
(v) Develop the competence to proffer solutions to economic problems identified.

Ifeanyi James Princewill

Ifeanyi James Princewill

Course Instructor

Economics, like English and Mathematics is also important, more so because it gives students the reason to learn how to read and solve other Mathematical skills. In the course, I will also show you how to apply economic ideas in your daily endeavour.

Ezeukwu Charles Ikenna

Ezeukwu Charles Ikenna

Assistant Course Instructor

Course Syllabus

Economics as a science

a. Basic Concepts:
Wants, Scarcity, Choice, The scale of
Preference, Opportunity cost, Rationality,
Production, Distribution, Consumption.

bi. Economic problems of:
What, how, and for whom to produce and
the efficiency of resource use.
bii. Application of PPF to the solution of economic

Economic Systems

a. Types and characteristics of free
enterprise, centrally planned
and mixed economies
b. Solutions to economic problems under
different systems
c. Contemporary issues in economic systems (economic reforms e.g deregulation,
banking sector consolidation, cash policy

Methods and Tools of Economic Analysis

a. Scientific Approach:
i. inductive and deductive methods
ii. positive and normative reasoning
b. Basic Tools
i. tables, charts and graphs
ii. measures of central tendency: mean,
median and mode, and their
iii. measures of dispersion; variance,
standard deviation, range and their
iv. merits and demerits of the tool

The Theory of Demand

a. i. meaning and determinants of demand
ii. demand schedules and curves
iii. the distinction between change in
quantity demanded and change in
b. Types of demand:
Composite, derived, competitive and
joint demand:
c. Types, nature and determinants of
elasticity and their measurement –
price, income and cross elasticity of
d. Importance of elasticity of demand to
consumers, producers and government.

The Theory of Consumer Behavior

a. Basic Concepts:
i. utility (cardinal, ordinal, total
average and marginal utilities)
ii. indifference curve and budget
b. Diminishing marginal utility and the law
of demand.
c. Consumer equilibrium using the
indifference curve and marginal
d. Effects of shift in the budget line and the
indifference curve.
e. Consumer surplus and its applications

The Theory of Supply

a. i. Meaning and determinants of
ii. Supply schedules and supply curves
iii. the distinction between change in
quantity supplied and change in
b. Types of Supply:
Joint/complementary, competitive and
c. Elasticity of Supply:
determinants, measurements, nature and

The Theory of Price Determination

a. The concepts of market and price
b. Functions of the price system
c. i. Equilibrium price and quantity in
product and factor markets
ii. Price legislation and its effects

d. The effects of changes in supply and
demand on equilibrium price and

The Theory of Production

a. Meaning and types of production
b. Concepts of production and their
interrelationships (TP, AP, MP and the
law of variable proportion).
c. Division of labour and specialization
d. Scale of Production:
Internal and external economies of scale
and their implications.
e. Production functions and returns to
f. Producers’ equilibrium isoquant-isocost
and marginal analyses.
g. Factors affecting productivity.

Theory of Costs and Revenue

a. The concepts of cost:
Fixed, Variable, Total Average and
b. The concepts of revenue: Total, average
and marginal revenue;
c. Accountants’ and Economists’ notions
of cost
d. Short-run and long-run costs
e. The marginal cost and the supply curve
of firm.

Market Structures

a. Perfectly competitive market:
i. Assumptions and characteristics;

ii. Short-run and long-run equilibrium
of a perfect competitor;
b. Imperfect Market:
i. Pure monopoly, discriminatory
monopoly and monopolistic
ii. Short-run and long-run equilibrium
c. Break-even/shut-down analysis in the
various markets.

National Income

a. The Concepts of GNP, GDP, NI, NNP
b. National Income measurements and
their problems
c. Uses and limitations of national income
d. The circular flow of income (two and
three-sector models)
e. The concepts of consumption,
investment and savings
f. The multiplier and its effects
g. Elementary theory of income
determination and equilibrium national

Money and Inflation

a. Types, characteristics and functions of
b. Demand for money and the supply of
c. Quantity Theory of money (Fisher
d. The value of money and the price level
e. Inflation: Types, measurements, effects
and control
f. Deflation: Measurements, effects and

Financial Institutions

a. Types and functions of financial
institutions (traditional, central bank,
mortgage banks, merchant banks,

insurance companies, building
b. The role of financial institutions in
economic development;
c. Money and capital markets
d. Financial sector regulations
e. Deposit money banks and the creation
of money
f. Monetary policy and its instruments
g. Challenges facing financial institutions
in Nigeria.

Public Finance

a. Meaning and objectives
b. Fiscal policy and its instruments
c. Sources of government revenue (taxes
royalties, rents, grants and aids)
d. Principles of taxation
e. Tax incidence and its effects
f. The effects of public expenditure
g. Government budget and public debts
h. Revenue allocation and resource control
in Nigeria.

Economic Growth and Development

a. Meaning and scope
b. Indicators of growth and development
c. Factors affecting growth and
d. Problems of development in Nigeria
e. Development planning in Nigeria

Agriculture in Nigeria

a. Types and features;
b. The role of agriculture in economic
c. Problems of agriculture;
d. Effects of agricultural policies and their
e. Instability in agricultural incomes
(causes, effects and solutions).

Industry and Industrialisation

a. Concepts and effects of location and
localisation of industry in Nigeria;
b. Strategies and Industrialisation in
c. Industrialisation and economic
development in Nigeria;
d. Funding and management of business
e. Factors determining the size of firms.

Business Organisations

a. Private enterprises (e.g. sole proprietorship,
partnership, limited liability companies
and cooperative societies)
b. Problems of private enterprises;
c. Public enterprises and their problems;
d. Funding and management of business
e. Factors determining the size of firms;
f. Privatisation and Commercialisation as
solutions to the problems of public


a. Meaning and theories;
b. Census: importance and problems.

c. Size and growth: over-population, underpopulation and optimum population.
d. Structure and distribution;
e. Population policy and economic

International Trade

a. Meaning and basis for international trade
(absolute and comparative costs etc)
b. Balance of trade and balance of
payments: problems and corrective
c. Composition and direction of Nigeria’s
foreign trade;
d. Exchange rate: meaning, types and

International Economic Organizations

Roles and relevance of international
organization e.g. ECOWAS, AU, EU, ECA,
IMF, EEC, OECD, World Bank, IBRD,
WTO, ADB and UNCTAD etc to Nigeria

Factors of Production and their Theories

a. Types, features and rewards;
b. Determination of wages, interest and
c. Theories: marginal productivity theory
of wages and liquidity preference
d. Factor mobility and efficiency;
e. Unemployment and its solutions



Learning Outcomes

 At the end of this course, candidates should be able to:
(i) Understand the basic principles and concepts in chemistry;
(ii) Interpret scientific data relating to chemistry;
(iii) Deduce the relationships between chemistry and other sciences;
(iv) Apply the knowledge of chemistry to industry and everyday life.

Okoronkwo Nnaemeka David

Okoronkwo Nnaemeka David

Course Instructor

I encourage you to see this course beyond merely passing exams, but as fundamental to human world. Chemistry plays crucial role and touches almost every aspect of human existence, for instance, it is essential in meeting human basic needs such as food, clothing, shelter, health, energy, and water. The assistant course instructor and I will be in the course forum to answer your questions, remember to attend all our live sessions. Cheers.

kelvin Oghenetega Ibru-Adegbeji

kelvin Oghenetega Ibru-Adegbeji

Assistant Course Instructor

Course Syllabus

Separation of mixtures and purification of chemical substances

(a) Pure and impure substances
(b) Boiling and melting points.
(c) Elements, compounds and mixtures
(d) Chemical and physical changes.
(e) Separation processes:
evaporation, simple and fractional distillation,
sublimation, filtration, crystallization, paper
and column chromatography, simple and
fractional crystallization, magnetization,

Chemical combination

Stoichiometry, laws of definite and multiple
proportions, law of conservation of matter,
Gay Lussac’s law of combining volumes,
Avogadro’s law; chemical symbols, formulae,
equations and their uses, relative atomic mass
based on 12C=12, the mole concept and
Avogadro’s number.

Kinetic theory of matter and Gas Laws

(a) An outline of the kinetic theory of matter;
(i) melting,
(ii) vaporization

(iii) boiling
(iv) freezing
(v) condensation
in terms of molecular motion and Brownian
(b)(i) The laws of Boyle, Charles, Graham and
Dalton (law of partial pressure); combined gas
law, molar volume and atomicity of gases.
(ii) The ideal gas equation (PV = nRT).
(iii) The relationship between vapour density of
gases and the relative molecular mass.

Atomic structure and bonding

(a) (i)The concept of atoms, molecules and ions,
the works of Dalton, Millikan, Rutherford,
Moseley, Thompson and Bohr.
(ii) Atomic structure, electron configuration,
atomic number, mass number and isotopes;
specific examples should be drawn from
elements of atomic number 1 to 20.
(iii) Shapes of s and p orbitals.
(b) The periodic table and periodicity of
elements, presentation of the periodic table
with a view to recognizing families of
elements e.g. alkali metals, halogens, the
noble gases and transition metals. The
variation of the following properties:
ionization energy, ionic radii, electron
affinity and electronegativity

(c) Chemical bonding.
Electrovalency and covalency, the electron
configuration of elements and their tendency
to attain the noble gas structure. Hydrogen
bonding and metallic bonding as special
types of electrovalency and covalency
respectively; coordinate bond as a type
of covalent bond as illustrated by complexes
like [Fe(CN)6]
, [Fe(CN)6]
, [Cu(NH3)4]
and [Ag(NH3)2]
; van der Waals’ forces
should be mentioned as a special type of
bonding forces.
(d) Shapes of simple molecules: linear ((H2, O2,
C12,HCl and CO2), non-linear (H2O) and
tetrahedral; (CH4) and pyramidal (NH3).

(e) Nuclear Chemistry:
(i) Radioactivity – Types and properties of
(ii) Nuclear reactions. Simple equations,
uses and applications of natural and
artificial radioactivity.


(a) The natural gaseous constituents and
their proportion in the air.
– nitrogen, oxygen, water vapour, carbon
(IV) oxide and the noble gases (argon
and neon).
(b) Air as a mixture and some uses of the
noble gas.


(a) Water as a product of the combustion
of hydrogen and its composition by
(b) Water as a solvent, atmospheric gases
dissolved in water and their biological
(c) Hard and soft water:
Temporary and permanent
hardness and methods of softening
hard water.
(d) Treatment of water for town supply.
(e) Water of crystallization, efflorescence,
deliquescence and hygroscopy.
Examples of the substances exhibiting
these properties and their uses


(a) Unsaturated, saturated and
supersaturated solutions. Solubility
curves and simple deductions from
them, (solubility defined in terms of
mole per dm3) and simple

(b) Solvents for fats, oil and paints
and the use of such solvents
for the removal of stains.
(c) False solution (Suspensions and colloids):
Properties and examples.
Harmattan haze and water paints as examples
of suspensions and fog, milk, aerosol spray,
emulsion paints and rubber solution as
examples of colloids.


Environmental Pollution

(a) Sources and effects of pollutants.
(b) Air pollution:
Examples of air pollutants such as
H2S, CO, SO2, oxides of nitrogen,
chlorofluorocarbons and dust.
(c) Water pollution
Sewage and oil pollution should be
(d) Soil pollution:
Oil spillage, Biodegradable and
non-biodegradable pollutants

Acids, bases and salts

(a) General characteristics and properties of
acids, bases and salts. Acids/base indicators,
basicity of acids; normal, acidic, basic and
double salts. An acid defined as a substance
whose aqueous solution furnishes H3O+
or as a proton donor. Ethanoic, citric and
tartaric acids as examples of naturally
occurring organic acids, alums as examples
of double salts, preparation of salts by
neutralization, precipitation and action of
acids on metals. Oxides and
trioxocarbonate (IV) salts
(b) Qualitative comparison of the
conductances of molar solutions of
strong and weak acids and bases,
relationship between conductance and
amount of ions present.

(c) pH and pOH scale; Simple calculations

(d) Acid/base titrations.
(e) Hydrolysis of salts: Principle
Simple examples such as
NH4Cl, AlCl3, Na2CO3 and CH3COONa

Oxidation and reduction

(a) Oxidation in terms of the addition of
oxygen or removal of hydrogen.
(b) Reduction as removal of oxygen or
addition of hydrogen.
(c) Oxidation and reduction in terms of
electron transfer.
(d) Use of oxidation numbers.
Oxidation and reduction treated as change
in oxidation number and use of oxidation
numbers in balancing simple equations.
(e) IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic
compounds using oxidation number.
(f) Tests for oxidizing and reducing agents.


(a) Electrolytes and non-electrolytes.
Faraday’s laws of electrolysis.
(b) (i) Electrolysis of dilute H2SO4, aqueous
CuSO4, CuC12 solution, dilute and
concentrated NaC1 solutions and
fused NaC1
(ii) Factors affecting discharge of ions at
the electrodes.

(c) Uses of electrolysis:
Purification of metals e.g. copper and
production of elements and compounds
(Al, Na, O2, Cl2 and NaOH).
(d) Electrochemical cells:
Redox series (K, Ca, Na, Mg,
Al, Zn, Fe, Sn, Pb, H, Cu, Hg, Ag, Au,)
half-cell reactions and electrode potentials.
(Simple calculations only).
(e) Corrosion as an electrolytic process,
cathodic protection of metals,
painting, electroplating and coating
with grease or oil as ways of
preventing iron from corrosion


Energy changes

(a) Energy changes(∆H) accompanying physical
and chemical changes:
dissolution of substances in/or
reaction with water e.g. Na, NaOH,
K, NH4Cl. Endothermic (+∆H) and
exothermic (-∆H) reactions.
(b) Entropy as an order-disorder
phenomenon: simple illustrations
like mixing of gases and dissolution
of salts.
(c) Spontaneity of reactions:
∆G0 = 0 as a criterion for equilibrium, ∆G
greater or less than zero as a criterion for
non-spontaneity or spontaneity respectively

Rates of Chemical Reaction

(a) Elementary treatment of the following factors
which can change the rate of a chemical
(i) Temperature e.g. the reaction between HCl
and Na2S2O3 or Mg and HCl

(ii) Concentration e.g. the reaction between HCl
and Na2S2O3, HCl and marble and the iodine
clock reaction, for gaseous systems, pressure
may be used as concentration term.
(iii) Surface area e.g. the reaction
between marble and HCl with
marble in
(i) powdered form
(ii) lumps of the same mass.
(iv) Catalyst e.g. the decomposition
of H2O2 or KClO3 in the
presence or absence of MnO2
(b) Reaction rate curves.
(c) Activation energy
Qualitative treatment of Arrhenius’ law and
the collision theory, effect of light on some
reactions. e.g. halogenation of alkanes

Chemical equilibra

Reversible reactions and factors governing
the equilibrium position. Dynamic
equilibrium. Le Chatelier’s principle and
equilibrium constant. Simple examples to
include action of steam on iron and
N2O4 2NO2.

Non-metals and their compounds

(a) Hydrogen: commercial production from
water gas and cracking of petroleum
fractions, laboratory preparation,
properties, uses and test for hydrogen.
(b) Halogens: Chlorine as a representative
element of the halogen. Laboratory
preparation, industrial preparation by
electrolysis, properties and uses, e.g.
water sterilization, bleaching,
manufacture of HCl, plastics and

Hydrogen chloride and Hydrochloric acid:
Preparation and properties. Chlorides and test for
(c) Oxygen and Sulphur
(i) Oxygen:
Laboratory preparation, properties and uses.
Commercial production from liquid air.
Oxides: Acidic,basic, amphoteric and neutral,
trioxygen (ozone) as an allotrope and the
importance of ozone in the atmosphere.
(ii) Sulphur:
Uses and allotropes:
preparation of allotropes is not expected .
Preparation, properties and uses of sulphur(IV)
oxide, the reaction of SO2 with alkalis.
Trioxosulphate (IV) acid and its salts, the effect
of acids on salts of trioxosulphate(IV),
Tetraoxosulphate(VI) acid: Commercial
preparation (contact process only), properties as
a dilute acid, an oxidizing and a dehydrating
agent and uses. Test for SO4
Hydrogen sulphide: Preparation and properties
as a weak acid, reducing agent and precipitating
agent. Test for S2-

(d) Nitrogen:
(i) Laboratory preparation
(ii) Production from liquid air
(iii) Ammonia:
Laboratory and industrial
preparations (Haber Process only),
properties and uses, ammonium salts
and their uses, oxidation of
ammonia to nitrogen (IV)
oxide and trioxonitrate (V)
Test for NH4
(iv) Trioxonitrate (V) acid:
Laboratory preparation
from ammonia;
properties and uses. Trioxonitrate (V) salt-
action of heat and uses. Test for NO3

(v) Oxides of nitrogen:
Properties.The nitrogen cycle.
(e) Carbon:
(i) Allotropes: Uses and
(ii) Carbon(IV) oxide-
Laboratory preparation, properties
and uses. Action of heat on
trioxocarbonate (IV) salts and test for
(iii) Carbon(II) oxide:
Laboratory preparation, properties
including its effect on blood;
sources of carbon (II) oxide to
include charcoal, fire and exhaust
(iv) Coal: Different types, products
obtained from destructive
distillation of wood and coal.
(v) Coke: Gasification and uses.
Manufacture of synthetic gas and


Metals and their compounds

(a) General properties of metals
(b) Alkali metals e.g. sodium
(i) Sodium hydroxide:-
Production by electrolysis of
brine, its action on aluminium, zinc and
lead ions.
Uses including precipitation of
metallic hydroxides.
(ii) Sodium trioxocarbonate (IV)
and sodium hydrogen trioxocarbonate
(IV): Production by Solvay process,
properties and uses, e.g.
Na2CO3 in the manufacture of glass.
(iii) Sodium chloride: its occurrence in
sea water and uses, the economic
importance of sea water and the
recovery of sodium chloride.
(c) Alkaline-earth metals, e.g. calcium;
calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide
and calcium trioxocarbonate (IV);
Properties and uses. Preparation of
calcium oxide from sea shells, the
chemical composition of cement
and the setting of mortar. Test for Ca2+.

(d) Aluminium
Purification of bauxite, electrolytic
extraction, properties and uses of
aluminium and its compounds. Test
for A13+
(e) Tin
Extraction from its ores.
Properties and uses.
(f) Metals of the first transition series.
Characteristic properties:
(i) electron configuration
(ii) oxidation states
(iii) complex ion formation
(iv) formation of coloured ions
(v) catalysis
(g) Iron
Extraction from sulphide and oxide
ores, properties and uses, different forms
of iron and their properties and
advantages of steel over iron.
Test for Fe2+ and Fe3+

(h) Copper
Extraction from sulphide and oxide
ores, properties and uses of copper.
Preparation and uses of copper( II )

(i) Alloy
Steel, stainless steel, brass, bronze,
type- metal, duralumin, soft solder,
permallory and alnico (constituents and
uses only).

Organic Compounds

An introduction to the tetravalency of
carbon, the general formula, IUPAC
nomenclature and the determination of
empirical formula of each class of the
organic compounds mentioned below.
(a) Aliphatic hydrocarbons
(i) Alkanes
Homologous series in relation
to physical properties,
substitution reaction and a few
examples and uses of halogenated
products. Isomerism: structural only (examples on isomerism should
not go beyond six carbon atoms).
Petroleum: composition, fractional
distillation and major products;
cracking and reforming,
Petrochemicals – starting materials of
organic syntheses, quality of petrol
and meaning of octane number.

(ii) Alkenes
Isomerism: structural and geometric
isomerism, additional and
polymerization reactions, polythene
and synthetic rubber as examples of
products of polymerization and its use
in vulcanization.
(iii) Alkynes
Ethyne – production from action of
water on carbides, simple reactions and
properties of ethyne.
(b) Aromatic hydrocarbons e.g. benzene –
structure, properties and uses.
(c) Alkanols
Primary, secondary, tertiary – production
of ethanol by fermentation and from
petroleum by-products. Local examples
of fermentation and distillation, e.g.
gin from palm wine and other local
sources and glycerol as a polyhydric
Reactions of OH group – oxidation as a
distinguishing test among primary, secondary
and tertiary alkanols (Lucas test).

(d) Alkanals and alkanones.
Chemical test to distinguish between
alkanals and alkanones.
(e) Alkanoic acids.
Chemical reactions; neutralization and
esterification, ethanedioic (oxalic) acid
as an example of a dicarboxylic acid
and benzene carboxylic acid as an
example of an aromatic acid.

(f) Alkanoates
Formation from alkanoic acids and
alkanols – fats and oils as alkanoates.
Production of soap and margarine from
alkanoates and distinction between
detergents and soaps.
(g) Amines (Alkanamines) Primary, Secondary,
and tertiary
(h) Carbohydrates
Classification – mono-, di- and
polysaccharides; composition, chemical tests
for simple sugars and reaction with
concentrated tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid.
Hydrolysis of complex sugars e.g. cellulose
from cotton and starch from cassava, the uses
of sugar and starch in the production of
alcoholic beverages, pharmaceuticals and textiles.

(i) Proteins:
Primary structures, hydrolysis and tests
(Ninhydrin, Biuret, Millon’s and
Enzymes and their functions.
(j) Polymers:
Natural and synthetic rubber; addition and
condensation polymerization.
– Methods of preparation, examples and
Thermoplastic and thermosetting plastics

Chemistry and Industry

Chemical industries: Types, raw materials and
relevancies; Biotechnology



Learning Outcomes

 At the end of this course, candidates should be able to:

(i) Demonstrate sufficient knowledge of the concepts of the diversity interdependence and unity of
(ii) Account for the continuity of life through reorganization, inheritance, and evolution;
(iii) Apply biological principles and concepts to everyday life, especially to matters affecting living
things, individuals, society, the environment, community health, and the economy.

Kelvin Ogbenetega Ibru-Adogbeji

Kelvin Ogbenetega Ibru-Adogbeji

Course Instructor

By studying Biology, students learn to make more informed decisions about their own health and about significant biological issues such as genetically modified crops, the use of antibiotics and the eradication of invasive species. In this course, I will bring you up to speed with these realities which will, in turn, help you to pass your exams. Remember to ask questions in the course forum and attend all live sessions.

John Sunday Emmanuel

John Sunday Emmanuel

Assistant Course Instructor

Course Syllabus


1. Living organisms:
a. Characteristics
b. Cell structure and functions of cell Components
c. Level of organization
i. Cell e.g. euglena and paramecium,
ii. Tissue, e.g. epithelial tissues and hydra

iii. Organ, e.g. onion bulb
iv. Systems, e.g. reproductive, digestive and

v. Organisms e.g. Chlamydomonas
2. Evolution among the following:
a. Monera (prokaryotes), e.g. bacteria and blue green algae.
b. Protista (protozoans and protophyta),
e.g. Amoeba, Euglena and Paramecium
c. Fungi, e.g. mushroom and Rhizopus.
d. Plantae (plants)
i. Thallophyta (e.g. Spirogyra)
ii. Bryophyta (mosses and liveworts) e.g.
Brachmenium and Merchantia.
iii. Pteridophyta (ferns) e.g. Dryopteris.

iv. Spermatophyta (Gymnospermae and
– Gymnosperms e.g. Cycads and conifers.
– Angiosperms (monocots, e.g. maize; dicots,
e.g. water leaf)
e. Animalia (animals)
i. Invertebrates
– coelenterate (e.g. Hydra)
– Platyhelminthes (flatworms) e.g. Taenia
– Nematoda (roundworms)
– Annelida (e.g. earthworm)
– Arthropoda e.g. mosquito, cockroach,
housefly, bee, butterfly
– Mollusca (e.g. snails)
ii. Multicellular animals (vertebrates)
– pisces (cartilaginous and bony fish)
– Amphibia (e.g. toads and frogs)
– Reptilia (e.g. lizards, snakes and turtles)
– Aves (birds)
– Mammalia (mammals)
3.a Structural/functional and behavioural
adaptations of organisms.

b. adaptive colouration and its functions
c. Behavioural adaptations in social animals
d. Structural adaptations in organisms.


1. Internal structure of a flowering plant

i. Root
ii. Stem
iii. Leaf
b. Internal structure of a mammal
2. Nutrition
a. Modes of nutrition
i. Autotrophic
ii. Heterotrophic

b. Types of Nutrition
c. Plant nutrition
i. Photosynthesis
ii. Mineral requirements
(macro and micro-nutrients)

d. Animal nutrition
i. Classes of food substances; carbohydrates, proteins,
fats and oils, vitamins, mineral salts and water

ii. Food tests (e.g. starch, reducing sugar, protein, oil, fat
iii. The mammalian tooth (structures, types and functions)

iv. Mammalian alimentary canal
v. Nutrition process (ingestion, digestion, absorption,
and assimilation of digested food.
3. Transport
a. Need for transportation
b. Materials for transportation.
Excretory products, gases, manufactured food,
digested food, nutrient, water and hormones)
c. Channels for transportation
i. Mammalian circulatory system (heart, arteries,
veins, and capillaries)
ii Plant vascular system (phloem and xylem)

4. Respiration
a. Respiratory organs and surfaces
b. The mechanism of gaseous exchange in:

i. Plants
ii. Mammals
c. Aerobic respiration
d. Anaerobic respiration
5. Excretion
a. Types of excretory structures:
contractile vacuole, flamecell,
nephridium, Malpighian tubule, kidney,
stoma and lenticel.
b. Excretory mechanisms:
i. Kidneys
ii. lungs
ii. skin
c. Excretory products of plants

6. Support and movement
a. Tropic, tactic, nastic and sleep
movements in plants
b. supporting tissues in animals
c. Types and functions of the skeleton
i. Exoskeleton
ii. Endoskeleton
iii. Functions of the skeleton in animals

7. Reproduction
a. A sexual reproduction
i. Fission as in Paramecium
ii. Budding as in yeast
iii. Natural vegetative propagation
iv. Artificial vegetative propagation.
b. sexual reproduction in flowering plants
i. Floral parts and their functions
ii. Pollination and fertilization
iii. products of sexual reproduction
c. Reproduction in mammals
i. structures and functions of the male and female
reproductive organs
ii. Fertilization and development.
(Fusion of gamates)

8. Growth
a. meaning of growth
b. Germination of seeds and condition
necessary for germination of seeds.
9. Co-ordination and control
a. Nervous coordination:
i. the components, structure and functions
of the central nervous system;
ii. The components and functions of the
peripheral nervous systems;
iii. Mechanism of transmission of impulses;
iv. Reflex action
b. The sense organs
i. skin (tactile)
ii. nose (olfactory)
iii. tongue (taste)
iv. eye (sight)
v. ear (auditory)
c. Hormonal control
i. animal hormonal system
– Pituitary
– thyroid
– parathyroid
– adrenal gland

ii. Plant hormones (phytohormones)

d. Homeostasis
i. Body temperature regulation
ii. Salt and water regulation



1. Factors affecting the distribution of
i. Abiotic
ii. Biotic
2. Symbiotic interactions of plants
and animals
(a) Energy flow in the ecosystem: food chains,
food webs and trophic levels
(b) Nutrient cycling in nature

i. carbon cycle
ii. water cycle
iii. Nitrogen cycle
3. Natural Habitats
(a) Aquatic (e.g. ponds, streams, lakes
seashores and mangrove swamps)
(b) Terrestrial/arboreal (e.g. tree-tops of oil palm,
abandoned farmland or a dry grassy (savanna) field,
and burrow or hole.

4. Local (Nigerian) Biomes)
a. Tropical rainforest
b. Guinea savanna (southern and northern)
c. Sudan Savanna
d. Desert
e. Highlands of montane forests and grasslands of the
Obudu, Jos, Mambilla Plateau.
5. The Ecology of Populations:
(a) Population density and overcrowding.
(b) Adaptation for survival
i. Factors that bring about competition
ii. Intra and inter-specific competition
iii. Relationship between competition and
(c) Factors affecting population sizes:
i. Biotic (e.g. food, pest, disease, predation, competition,
reproductive ability).
ii. Abiotic (e.g. temperature, space, light, rainfall,
topography, pressure, pH, etc.
(d) Ecological succession
i. primary succession
ii. secondary succession
a) (i) characteristics of different types
of soil (sandy, loamy, clayey)
i. soil structure
ii. porosity, capillarity and humus
iii. Components of the soil
i. inorganic
ii. organic
iii. soil organisms
iv. Soil air
v. Soil water
Soil fertility:
i. loss of soil fertility
ii. Renewal and maintenance of soil

7. Humans and Environment
(a) Diseases:
(i) Common and endemic diseases.
ii. Easily transmissible diseases and disease
syndrome such as:
– poliomyelitis
– cholera
– tuberculosis
– sexually transmitted disease/syndrome
(gonorrhea, syphilis, AIDS, etc.
b. Pollution and its control
(i) sources, types, effects and methods of control.
(ii) Sanitation and sewage

(c) Conservation of Natural Resources
(d) Game reserves and National parks


(I) Variation In Population
a. Morphological variations in the physical appearance
of individuals.
(i) size (height, weight)
(ii) Colour (skin, eye, hair, coat of animals, scales
and feathers.
(iii) Fingerprints
b. Physiological variation
(i) Ability to roll tongue
(ii) Ability to taste
phenylthiocarbamide (PTC)
(iii) Blood groups
c. Application of discontinuous
variation in crime detection,
blood transfusion and
determination of paternity.
2. Heredity
a) Inheritance of characters in organisms;
i) Heritable and non-heritable characters.
b) Chromosomes – the basis of heredity;
(i) Structure
(ii) Process of transmission of hereditary
characters from parents to offspring.
c) Probability in genetics and sex determination.
a) Application of the principles of heredity in:
i) Agriculture
(ii) Medicine

b. Sex – linked characters e.g. baldness,
haemophilia, colour blindness, etc.


1. Theories of evolution
a) Lamarck’s theory
b) Darwin’s theory
c) organic theory
2. Evidence of evolution



Learning Outcomes

 At the end of this course, candidates should be able to:

1. Sustain their interest in physics;

2. Develop attitude relevant to physics that encourages accuracy, precision, and objectivity;

3. Interpret physical phenomena, laws, definitions, concepts, and other theories;

4. Demonstrate the ability to solve correctly physics problems using relevant theories and concepts.

Oyibo Abdulrahaman

Oyibo Abdulrahaman

Course Instructor

Studies indicate that Secondary School Physics helps significantly to reduce the failure rate in university-level physics. Students themselves typically indicate that Secondary School Physics is a significant factor in their ability to handle university-level physics topics. Physics hones thinking skills. It is one of the few Secondary School level subjects that exercise both mathematical and verbal skills. Candidates are advised to pay close attention to this course, as it will take them beyond passing their exams.

Oladipupo Simeon Oladele

Oladipupo Simeon Oladele

Assistant Course Instructor

Course Syllabus

Measurements and Units

(a) Length, area and volume: Metre rule,
Venier calipers Micrometer
Screw-guage, measuring cylinder
(b) Mass
(i) unit of mass
(ii) use of simple beam balance
(iii) concept of beam balance
(c) Time
(i) unit of time
(ii) time-measuring devices
(d) Fundamental physical quantities

(e) Derived physical quantities and their
(i) Combinations of fundamental quantities
and determination of their units
(f) Dimensions
(i) definition of dimensions
(ii) simple examples
(g) Limitations of experimental measurements
(i) accuracy of measuring
(ii) simple estimation of errors.
(iii) significant figures.
(iv) standard form

(h) Measurement, position, distance and
(i) concept of displacement
(ii) distinction between distance and
(iii) concept of position and coordinates
(iv) frame of reference


Scalars and Vectors

(i) definition of scalar and vector quantities
(ii) examples of scalar and vector quantities
(iii) relative velocity
(iv) resolution of vectors into two
perpendicular directions including
graphical methods of


(a) Types of motion:
translational, oscillatory, rotational, spin
and random
(b) Relative motion
(c) Causes of motion
(d) Types of force
(i) contact
(ii) force field
(e) Linear motion
(i) speed, velocity and acceleration
(ii) equations of uniformly accelerated
(iii) motion under gravity
(iv) distance-time graph and velocity time
(v) instantaneous velocity and

(f) Projectiles:
(i) calculation of range, maximum height
and time of flight from the ground and
a height
(ii) applications of projectile motion
(g) Newton’s laws of motion:
(i) inertia, mass and force
(ii) relationship between mass and
(iii) impulse and momentum

(iv) force – time graph
(v) conservation of linear momentum
(Coefficient of restitution not
(h) Motion in a circle:
(i) angular velocity and angular
(ii) centripetal and centrifugal forces.
(iii) applications

(i) Simple Harmonic Motion (S.H.M):
(i) definition and explanation of simple
harmonic motion
(ii) examples of systems that execute
(iii) period, frequency and amplitude of
(iv) velocity and acceleration of S.H.M
(v)simple treatment of energy change in
(vi) force vibration and resonance
(simple treatment)

Gravitational field

(i) Newton’s law of universal gravitation
(ii) gravitational potential
(iii) conservative and non-conservative
(iv) acceleration due to gravity
(v) variation of g on the earth’s surface
(iv) distinction between mass and weight
(v) escape velocity
(vi) parking orbit and weightlessness

Equilibrium of Forces

(a) Equilibrium of particles:
(i) equilibrium of coplanar forces
(ii) triangles and polygon of forces
(iii) Lami’s theorem
(b) Principles of moments
(i) moment of a force
(ii) simple treatment and moment of a couple
(iii) applications
(c) Conditions for equilibrium of rigid bodies
under the action of parallel and nonparallel forces
(i) resolution and composition of forces in
two perpendicular directions,
(ii) resultant and equilibrant
(d) Centre of gravity and stability
(i) stable, unstable and neutral equilibra

Work, Energy and Power

(a) Work, Energy and Power
(i) definition
(ii) forms of energy
(vii) conservation of energy
(iv) qualitative treatment between different
forms of energy
(viii) interpretation of area under the forcedistance curve

(b) Energy and society
(i) sources of energy
(ii) renewable and non-renewable energy eg
coal, crude oil etc
(iii) uses of energy
(iv) energy and development

(v) energy diversification
(vi) environmental impact of energy eg global
warming, green house effect and spillage
(vii) energy crises
(viii) conversion of energy
(ix) devices used in energy production.
(c) Dams and energy production
(i) location of dams
(ii) energy production
(d) nuclear energy
(e) solar energy
(i) solar collector
(ii) solar panel for energy supply



(i) static and dynamic friction
(ii) coefficient of limiting friction and its
(iii) advantages and disadvantages of friction
(iv) reduction of friction
(v) qualitative treatment of viscosity and
terminal velocity.
(vi) Stoke’s law

Simple Machines

(i) definition of simple machines
(ii) types of machines
(iii) mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and
efficiency of machines


(i) elastic limit, yield point, breaking point,
Hooke’s law and Young’s modulus

(ii) the spring balance as a device for measuring
(iii.) work done per unit volume in springs and
elastic strings
(i) work done per unit volume in springs and
elastic strings.


(a) Atmospheric Pressure
(i) definition of atmospheric pressure
(ii) units of pressure (S.I) units (Pa)
(iii) measurement of pressure
(iv) simple mercury barometer,
aneroid barometer and manometer.
(v) variation of pressure with height
(vi) the use of barometer as an altimeter.
(b) Pressure in liquids
(i) the relationship between pressure, depth and
density (P = gh)
(ii) transmission of pressure in liquids (Pascal’s
(iii) application

Liquids At Rest

(i) determination of density of solids and liquids
(ii) definition of relative density
(iii) upthrust on a body immersed in a liquid
(iv) Archimede’s principle and law of floatation and applications, e.g. ships and hydrometer

Temperature and Its Measurement

(i) concept of temperature
(ii) thermometric properties
(iii) calibration of thermometers
(iv) temperature scales –Celsius and Kelvin.
(v) types of thermometers
(vi) conversion from one scale of temperature to

Thermal Expansion

(a) Solids
(i) definition and determination of linear,
volume and area expansivities
(ii) effects and applications, e.g. expansion in
building strips and railway lines
(ix)relationship between different expansivities
(b) Liquids
(i) volume expansivity
(ii) real and apparent expansivities
(iii) determination of volume expansivity
(iv) anomalous expansion of water

Gas Laws

(i) Boyle’s law (isothermal process)
(ii) Charle’s law (isobaric process)
(iii) Pressure law (volumetric process
(iv) absolute zero of temperature

(v) general gas quation
= constant )

(vi) ideal gas equation
Eg Pv = nRT
(vii) Van der waal gas

Quantity of Heat

(i) heat as a form of energy
(ii) definition of heat capacity and specific heat
capacity of solids and liquids
(iii) determination of heat capacity and specific
heat capacity of substances by simple
methods e.g method of mixtures and electrical method and Newton’s law of

Change of State

(i) latent heat
(ii) specific latent heats of fusion and
(iii) melting, evaporation and boiling
(iv) the influence of pressure and of dissolved
substances on boiling and melting points.
(ii) application in appliances


(i) unsaturated and saturated vapours
(ii) relationship between saturated vapour
pressure (S.V.P) and boiling
(iii) determination of S.V.P by barometer tube
(iv) formation of dew, mist, fog, and rain
(v) study of dew point, humidity and relative
(vi) hygrometry; estimation of the humidity of
the atmosphere using wet and dry bulb

Structure of Matter and Kinetic Theory

(a) Molecular nature of matter
(i) atoms and molecules
(ii) molecular theory: explanation of Brownian
motion, diffusion, surface tension,
capillarity, adhesion, cohesion and angles of
contact etc
(iii) examples and applications.
(b) Kinetic Theory
(i) assumptions of the kinetic theory
(ii) using the theory to explain the pressure
exerted by gas, Boyle’s law, Charles’ law,
melting, boiling, vapourization, change in temperature, evaporation, etc.

Heat Transfer

(i) conduction, convection and radiation as
modes of heat transfer
(ii) temperature gradient, thermal conductivity
and heat flux
(iii) effect of the nature of the surface on the
energy radiated and absorbed by it.
(iv) the conductivities of common materials.
(v) the thermos flask
(vii) land and sea breeze
(viii) engines


(a) Production and Propagation
(i) wave motion,
(ii) vibrating systems as source of waves
(iii) waves as mode of energy transfer
(iv) distinction between particle motion and
wave motion
(v) relationship between frequency, wavelength
and wave velocity (V=f λ)
(vi) phase difference, wave number and wave
(vii) progressive wave equation e.g
Y = A sin
  vt 


(b) Classification
(i) types of waves; mechanical and
electromagnetic waves
(ii) longitudinal and transverse waves
(iii) stationary and progressive waves
(iv) examples of waves from springs, ropes, stretched strings and the ripple tank.

(c) Characteristics/Properties
(i) reflection, refraction, diffraction and
plane Polarization
(ii) superposition of waves e.g interference
(iii) beats
(iv) doppler effects (qualitative treatment

Propagation of Sound Waves

(i) the necessity for a material medium
(ii) speed of sound in solids, liquids and air;
(iii) reflection of sound; echoes, reverberation
and their applications
(iv) disadvantages of echoes and reverberation

Characteristics of Sound Waves

(i) noise and musical notes
(ii) quality, pitch, intensity and loudness and
their application to musical instruments;
(iii) simple treatment of overtones produced by
vibrating strings and their columns
(iv) acoustic examples of resonance
(v) frequency of a note emitted by air columns in closed and open pipes in relation to their

Light Energy

(a) Sources of Light:
(i) natural and artificial sources of light
(ii) luminous and non-luminous objects
(b) Propagation of light
(i) speed, frequency and wavelength of
(ii) formation of shadows and eclipse
(iii) the pin-hole camera.

Reflection of Light at Plane and Curved Surfaces

(i) laws of reflection.
(ii) application of reflection of light
(iii) formation of images by plane, concave and
convex mirrors and ray diagrams
(iii) use of the mirror formula
(v) linear Magnification

Refraction of Light Through at Plane and Curved Surfaces

(i) explanation of refraction in terms of
velocity of light in the media.
(ii) laws of refraction
(iii) definition of refractive index of a medium
(iv) determination of refractive index of glass
and liquid using Snell’s law
(v) real and apparent depth and lateral
(vi) critical angle and total internal reflection
(b) Glass Prism
(i) use of the minimum deviation formula

Optical Instruments

(i) the principles of microscopes, telescopes,
projectors, cameras and the human eye
(physiological details of the eye are not
(ii) power of a lens
(iii) angular magnification
(iv) near and far points
(v) sight defects and their corrections

Dispersion of light and colours

(a) dispersion of light and colours
(i) dispersion of white light by a triangular
(ii) production of pure spectrum
(iii) colour mixing by addition and subtraction
(iv) colour of objects and colour filters
(b)electgromagnetic spectrum
(i) description of sources and uses of various
types of radiation.


(i) existence of positive and negative charges
in matter
(ii) charging a body by friction, contact and
(iii) electroscope
(iv) Coulomb’s inverse square law, electric
field and potential
(v) electric field intensity and potential
(vi) electric discharge and lightning


(ii) parallel plate capacitors
(iii) capacitance of a capacitor
(iv) the relationship between capacitance, area
separation of plates and medium between the
(v) capacitors in series and parallel
(vi) energy stored in a capacitor

Electric Cells

(i) simple voltaic cell and its defects;
(ii) Daniel cell, Leclanche cell (wet and dry)
(iii) lead –acid accumulator and Nickel-Iron
(Nife) Lithium lron and Mercury cadmium
(iv) maintenance of cells and batteries (detail
treatment of the chemistry of a cell is not
(v) arrangement of cells
(vi) Efficiency of a cell

Current Electricity

(i) electromagnetic force (emf), potential
difference (p.d.), current, internal resistance
of a cell and lost Volt
(ii) Ohm’s law
(iii) measurement of resistance
(iv) meter bridge
(v) resistance in series and in parallel and their
(vi) the potentiometer method of measuring
emf, current and internal resistance of a cell.
(v) electrical networks

Electrical Energy and Power

(i) concepts of electrical energy and power
(ii) commercial unit of electric energy and
(iii) electric power transmission
(v) heating effects of electric current.
(vi) electrical wiring of houses
(vii) use of fuse

Magnets and Magnetic Fields

(i) natural and artificial magnets
(ii) magnetic properties of soft iron and steel
(iii) methods of making magnets and
(iv) concept of magnetic field
(v) magnetic field of a permanent magnet
(vi) magnetic field round a straight current
carrying conductor, circular wire and
(vii) properties of the earth’s magnetic field;
north and south poles, magnetic meridian
and angle of dip and declination

(viii) flux and flux density
(ix) variation of magnetic field intensity over
the earth’s surface
(x) applications: earth’s magnetic field in
navigation and mineral exploration.


Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor

Magnetic Field
(i) quantitative treatment of force between
two parallel current-carrying conductors
(ii) force on a charge moving in a magnetic
(iii) the d. c. motor
(iv) electromagnets
(v) carbon microphone
(vi) moving coil and moving iron instruments
(vii) conversion of galvanometers to
ammeters and voltmeter using shunts
and multipliers
(viii) sensitivity of a galvanometer

Electromagnetic Induction

(i) Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction
(ii) factors affecting induced emf
(iii) Lenz’s law as an illustration of the
principle of conservation of energy

(iv) a.c. and d.c generators
(v) transformers
(vi) the induction coil
(b) Inductance
(i) explanation of inductance
(ii) unit of inductance
(iii) energy stored in an inductor
(iv) application/uses of inductors
(ix) Eddy Current
(i) reduction of eddy current
(ii) applications of eddy current

Simple A. C. Circuits

(ii) peak and r.m.s. values
(iii) a.c. source connected to a resistor;
(iv) a.c source connected to a capacitorcapacitive reactance
(v) a.c source connected to an inductor
inductive reactance
(vi) series R-L-C circuits
(vii) vector diagram, phase angle and power
(viii) resistance and impedance
(ix) effective voltage in an R-L-C circuits
(x) resonance and resonance frequency

Conduction of Electricity Through

(a) liquids

(i) electrolytes and non-electrolyte
(ii) concept of electrolysis
(iii) Faraday’s laws of electrolysis
(iv) application of electrolysis, e.g
electroplating, calibration of ammeter etc.
(b) gases
(i) discharge through gases (qualitative
treatment only)
(ii) application of conduction of electricity
through gases

Elementary Modern Physics

(i) models of the atom and their limitations
(ii) elementary structure of the atom;
(iii) energy levels and spectra
(iv) thermionic and photoelectric emissions;
(v) Einstein’s equation and stopping potential
(vi) applications of thermionic emissions and
photoelectric effects
(vii) simple method of production of x-rays
(viii) properties and applications of alpha, beta
and gamma rays
(xiii) half-life and decay constant
(xiv) simple ideas of production of energy by
fusion and fission
(xv) binding energy, mass defect and Einstein’s
Energy equation
[∆E = ∆Mc2

(xvi) wave-particle paradox (duality of matter)
(xvii) electron diffraction
(xviii) the uncertainty principle

Introductory Electronics

(i) distinction between metals, semiconductors
and insulators (elementary knowledge of band
gap is required)
(ii) intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors;
(iii) uses of semiconductors and diodes in
rectification and transistors in amplification
(iv) n-type and p-type semiconductors
(v) elementary knowledge of diodes and

A world-class education 

for anyone, anywhere.

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